Accepted Papers

LIST OF ACCEPTED PAPERS (IAPE'20)

Note: the review process still ongoing and more papers will be announced !

Article Title:
What factors drove the change of exergy efficiency of a social energy system? A LMDI decomposition method based on exergy efficiency analysis and a case study of China.
Author(s): Yuancheng Lin and Linwei Ma.

Exergy efficiency analysis is popularly used to evaluate the energy efficiency of social energy systems. Especially, using this method to study factors driving the change of exergy efficiency of social energy systems is valuable for energy policymaking. However, the low resolution of stage division of social energy systems in existing methods results that limited factors can be considered. This paper aims to develop a LMDI (Logarithmic mean Divisia Index) decomposition method based on exergy efficiency analysis, in order to understand what factors drove the change of exergy efficiency of social energy systems in a high resolution. In this method, a social energy system is divided into six stages, including primary energy input, secondary transformation, end-use conversion device, useful energy, passive system, and final energy service, and the time-series change of the exergy efficiency can be observed by high-resolution Sankey diagrams. Furthermore, six driving factors are included in a LMDI decomposition identity to quantify their effects to the change of the exergy efficiency, including the primary energy utilization coefficient, primary energy structure, secondary allocation structure, secondary transformation efficiency, end-use energy structure, and end-use conversion efficiency. Finally, the key driving factor identified can be further analysed, like the “Dual Structure” problem in China of the coexistence of new and old technologies in the industrial coal boiler and coal-fired power&heat generation. A case study of China in 2005, 2010, and 2015 is conducted, and the results illustrate that the improvement of China’s exergy efficiency is mainly contributed by the efficiency improvement of end-use conversion devices. Further analysis of “Dual Structure” problem indicates that the exergy efficiency improvement of industrial coal boiler is mainly contributed by the adjustment of devices’ capacity structure, and that of coal-fired power&heat generation is mainly contributed by the improvement of devices’ conversion efficiency. The main policy implication is to pay more attention to both the efficiency improvement and the internal structure adjustment of energy-intensive devices in end-use conversion stage.

social energy systems; exergy efficiency analysis; driving factors; LMDI; Sankey diagram.

LIN Yuancheng

Doctoral Candidate

Tsinghua-BP Clean Energy Research and Education Centre

Department of Energy and Power Engineering, Tsinghua University

Beijing 100084, P. R. CHINA.

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Article Title:
Trace Metal Supplementation Impact on Methane Fermentation of Fish Processing Wastewater with an Emphasis on Calcium.
Author(s): Eli Hendrik Sanjaya, Hui Cheng, Yemei Li and Yu-You Li.

Not only macronutrients but micronutrients or trace elements at relatively lower concentration are also required for anaerobic bioprocess. Trace metals are required in all biochemical processes in living organisms. These are an essential element required for synthesizing enzyme complex as part of the active site and also required as the growth factor for microorganisms. Moreover, in the biological system, methanogenesis is one of the most enzymatic pathways with metal-rich content. However, the methane fermentation process often faced a lack of trace element. In addition, to overcome an ammonia inhibition in the methane fermentation process, the substrate was diluted sometimes. For instance, the dilution method was applied in methane fermentation treatment of fish processing wastewater (FPW) using a self-agitated anaerobic baffled reactor (SA-ABR). It could result in the alleviation of trace elements concentration in the substrate.

The effect of trace metals on methane fermentation of FPW was investigated in both batch experiments and continuous experiment using SA-ABR. In batch experiments, a sole and combination of several trace metals were supplemented. The batch experiments results were evaluated to be references for doing the continuous experiment.

Based on the batch experiments, the three best performances of sole metal supplementation were Ca2+, Co2+ and Fe2+. Moreover, the three best trace metal combinations were  a2++Mg2++Fe2++Ni2++Co2+, Fe2++Ni2++Co2+ and Ca2++Mg2+. Supplementation of 15 g/L Ca2+ on the SA-ABR enhanced the maximum OLR at steady-state from OLR 6.77 to 7.62 g-COD/L/d. During steady-state from stage 2 to 5, the COD, protein, carbohydrate and lipid removals were 89, 85, 80 and 91%, on average. The biogas conversion rates were in the range of 0.397–0.454 L/g-COD/d with the average of methane content as high as 74%. In addition, Ca2+ supplementation also increased the resistance of methane fermentation system to the ammonia inhibition.

trace metal supplementation; methane fermentation; calcium; fish processing wastewater (FPW); ammonia inhibition.

Eli Hendrik Sanjaya is a junior lecturer at Chemistry Department, State University of Malang, Indonesia. Now, he is on last semester of Ph.D program at Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan. During his bachelor and master program, he studied fundamental of chemistry and biochemistry. However, recently, the focus of his research is on fish processing wastewater treatment using an integrated methane fermentation and partial nitritation/anammox process.

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Article Title:
Improvement of a Workbech for the Experimental Essay of Energy Storage by means of Phase Change Materials (PCMs) in Low Temperature Applications.
Author(s): Raquel Sendino, Gabriel Rubio-Pérez, Natalia Muñoz-Rujas, Jesús Marcos García-Alonso, Eduardo Montero Garcia and Fernando Aguilar.

Latent heat thermal energy storage is a particularly attractive technique because it provides a high energy storage density. When compared to a conventional sensible heat energy storage system, latent heat energy storage system requires a smaller weight and volume of material for a given amount of energy. In addition, latent heat storage has the capacity to store heat of fusion at a constant or near constant temperature which correspond to the phase transition temperature of the phase change material (PCM).
This contribution presents a study on the heat transfer mode of a PCM stored in a horizontal cylindrical shell and tube heat exchanger, being the PCM placed inside the tube containers. For this purpose, an experimental bench has been developed to test the transient heat transfer process at a laboratory level. The device is designed to be useful for low temperature applications (10ºC to 80ºC), such as space-conditioning by using renewable energies (solar, geothermal…). A heat source and a cooling source could interact through the heat storage tank filled with PCM in order to evaluate the thermal performance of the PCM. The aim is to compute the heat transfer of the installation during the loading, storage and downloading energy processes. The storage tank is designed in order to study different energy density storage (J/m3) cases by means of changing the amount of PCM for a given volume. Easiness of cleaning and replacing the PCM would give the opportunity to study several PCM, then to study several melting temperatures and latent heat enthalpies. The contribution describes the features of the experimental bench, its measuring devices and automation, and the initial test of calibration. The results of this study could be useful to perform low-cost tests of the theoretical potential of PCM storage materials for heating and air-conditioning applications before building large installations..

Thermal energy storage, Phase change materials, Latent heat.

Raquel Sendino Barrio: Mechanical Engineer (2019, Universidad de Burgos, Spain). Researcher with a scholarship from the Ministerio de Educación y Ciencia to carry out experimentation on thermal energy storage in phase change materials for low temperature applications, encompassed in the Regional Project: “New energy storage systems from renewable sources for environmentally efficient buildings”.

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Article Title:
An Up-to-date Look at the Study of Phase Diagrams of Mixtures Involving Fatty Acid Esters.
Author(s): Gabriel Rubio-Pérez, Natalia Muñoz-Rujas, Fernando Aguilar, Rebecca Ravotti, Lukas Müller and Eduardo Montero Garcia.

Interest in phase change materials keeps on rising as thermal energy storage grows in popularity in the scientific community for being a promising complement for renewables energies in the future. Extending the possibilities beyond pure compounds, the use of mixtures (specially eutectics) widens the range of suitable PCM available in the market. However, a precise knowledge of the phase behavior of the mixtures is required, what makes the phase diagram the most appropriate tool to follow. The aim of this work is to collect and analyze published literature concerning phase diagrams of mixtures involving fatty acid esters, a promising kind of substance currently being studied as potential PCM due to its interesting properties.

Thermal energy storage, phase change materials, phase diagrams, fatty acid esters, review.

Gabriel Rubio-Pérez: Spanish PhD student at the Universidad de Burgos, in Spain. Mechanical Engineering Degree and Industrial Engineering Master through the same university. Currently researching on Engineering Thermodynamics of Fluids, more precisely on suitable compounds for Latent Heat Thermal Energy Storage (LTES). Experience in Phase Change Materials (PCM) and several characterization techniques, such as Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and measurement of Solid Liquid Equilibrium (SLE). International stay at the Technik & Architektur of the Lucerne University of Applied Science and Arts, Hochschule Luzern, in Switzerland.

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Article Title:
On The Computation Of Double Integrals By Using Some Connection Between The Wave Equation And The System Of ODE.
Author(s): Vagif Ibrahimov, Galina Mehdiyeva and Mehriban Imanova.

As is known solving many scientific and engineering problems can be reduced to calculation of definite integrals. Famous and known authors studies this phenomenon very long time. In the last time, some differential equations are investigated by the help of double integrals. Therefore, here have considered to construct effective methods for computing of double integrals. For the demonstration of that here has illustrated how one can be solved the hyperbolic problems by using methods which have constructed for computation of double integrals. Taking into account some relation between the double integral and wave equation the computing of the double integral has reduced to solving of the initial-value problem for the system of ODEs. The finite-difference method has been applied to the computing of double integrals by using the described way. The computing of the double integrals in some cases have reduced to calculation of simple definite integrals. And also has been considered investigation of the double integrals in general form and estimated the received error in the reducing of the double integrals to simple. Thus, here proposed two ways for calculation of double integrals one of them is the reducing the double integrals to multiplying of two simple integrals, and the other is the computing of double integrals reducing to solving of initial-value problem for ODE of the first order. Constructed the algorithm to compute double integrals with the high exactness. The received result has illustrated by the calculation of the model integral.

Double and simple integral, wave equation, initial-value problem, degenerate function, multistep hybrid methods, stability and degree of hybrid methods.

Prof. Vagif Ibrahimov

Vagif Ibrahimov is a corresponding member of ANAS and Honored Teacher of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Doctor of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, V.R. Ibrahimov, for investigation of the forward jumping methods, extrapolation and interpolation methods in the general form, has constructed several formulas by which one can determine the upper bound for the accuracy to explicit and implicit stable multistep methods Obreshkov type, such he expanded Dalqvist’s theory. For the first time he proved the advantages of the forward jumping methods, and he constructed special methods such as predictor-correction for their use. He proved that there are more precise forward jumping methods. V.R. Ibrahimov found the maximum values of the degrees of stable and unstable MMM (including Cowell type methods) thus the study of the relationship between order and degree for MMM can be considered complete. V. Ibrahimov received a special representation of the error of the multi-step method, with which he determined the maximum number of increase in the accuracy of the method after a single application of Richardson extrapolation and a linear combination of multi-step methods. To construct more precise methods, he proposed using hybrid methods, which he applied to solving first-order and second-order ordinary differential equations. V.R. Ibrahimov defined the relations between of some coefficients for the MMM (including methods with forward jumping), which are the main criterion in the construction of stable multistep methods Obreshkov type with the maximal degree. These relations can be applied to the construction of two-sided methods. It is these methods that allow us to find the interval in which the exact value of the solution of the original problem lies. V.R. Ibrahimov constructed special methods for solving integral equations of Volterra type, in which the number of calculations of the integral kernel at each step remains constant. He defined sufficient conditions for their convergence. Taking into account that these methods represent new directions in the theory of numerical methods for solving integral equations, he constructed methods at the junction of multi-step and hybrid methods applied to solving integral and integro-differential equations of Volterra type. To solve integral equations of Volterra type with symmetric boundaries, he proposed using symmetric methods and constructed special symmetric methods of the forward jumping type. In order to construct stable methods having higher accuracy and an extended stability region, V.R. Ibrahimov proposed to construct methods at the junction of hybrid and forward jumping methods, which applied to the solving of ODE, integral and integro-differential equations of Volterra type. He proved the available to solving of initial-value problem for the ODE and Volterra integro-differential equations and also to solving of Volterra integral equations by taking into account computing of single and double integrals by the one and the same methods. He has estimated the maximal value of the order of exactness all the proposed methods.

Awards

2014- Diploma awarded by the Foundation for the Development of Science under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan, the Ministry of Communications and High Technologies of the Republic of Azerbaijan and the State Commission of the Republic of Azerbaijan by UNESCO (awarded second place for the best work in the field of ICT).

2011-2014 -Grant issued by the Foundation for the Development of Science under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan .

2016-2019 -Grant issued by the Foundation for the Development of Science under the President of the Republic of Azerbaijan .

2011 – Diploma “Development of Science”, issued by the international organization ASHE .

2009 – Honored Teacher of the Republic of Azerbaijan.

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Article Title:
Dry desulfurization process numerical simulation.
Author(s): Yuri Kagramanov, Vladimir Tuponogov, Alexander Ryzhkov and Micheal Ershov.

In current study, we consider system of dry syngas clean up (WGC). The aim of this system is to remove hydrogen sulfide from syngas without its cooling. WGC implementation in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) may significantly increase thermal efficiency, and to decrease capital costs. WGC has problems with sorbent degradation and attrition that increase with syngas temperature rise.

The goal of this study was to combine knowledge about hydrodynamics of multiphase flows and chemical mechanism of WGC process in one coupled simulation of WGC plug flow reactor (riser of circulated fluidized bed reactor), and to predict degradation effects during several main regimes of reactor operation. To reach the goal we solved list of objectives. The computational method was formulated. The model consisted of standard ANSYS Fluent instruments. System of conservation, Navier-Stokes, turbulence, energy, mass action partial differential equations were solved with the use of finite volume method. There were two types of geometries: cold CFB and reactor. Cold CFB (length 0.1 m width 0.3 m height 5 m) consisted of distribution grid, mixing zone and riser. It was discretized into 3D mesh with 150 thousand of hexahedral elements. Reactor consisted from riser. Riser (diameter 0.132m and height 15 m) was divided into 2000 stretched 2D rectangle elements (100 elements in radial direction 10 – in axial).

Process chemical mechanism consisted of three reactions: main – reaction of zinc oxide sulfidization in hydrogen sulfide and two side reactions of reduction of zinc oxide in hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Reaction rates were calculated with reduced shrinking core model. Kinetic constants were taken from our previous studies; where frequency factor was fixed due to include specific surface area of sorbent and its porous structure. Two types of verification calculations were conducted to analyze quality of model predictions. First type of calculations was based on experimental data from cold testing unit (VTI experimental testing unit). We calculated distribution of solid phase concentrations along the riser height, velocity fields, radial velocity distributions and upward and downward mass flows of solid phase. Mesh was fine enough to detect dense ring of solid phase near walls and truly predict downward solid phase flow. Second type of simulations was based on DOE (USA Department Of Energy) testing unit experimental data. During coupled (hydrodynamics + chemistry) simulations we determined volume fraction of hydrogen sulfide on outlet, mass fraction of evaporated zinc on outlet, conversion rate and residence times of gas and sorbent. Verified model was scaled up and implemented in industrial WGC reactor simulation. Reactor was tested in three main regimes: a) 2.1 MPa 844 K b) 2.1 MPa 923 K c) 3 MPa 844 K. Results showed that temperature has the most effect on selectivity shift in direction to side reactions, thus regimes with temperature 923 K had the most hazardous conditions for sorbent. During first and third regimes, main reaction rate was high enough to be dominant. Current study contains methods and recommendations for coupled simulations of industrial WGC systems.

Circulating fluidized bed, CFD, desulphurization.

YURI KAGRAMANO
Computer Fluid Dynamics Engineer

EDUCATION

Ural Federal University
Bachelor Degree in Thermal Engineering
2008 — 2012
Ural Federal University
Master Degree in Thermal Engineering
2012-2014
Ural Federal University
PhD in Thermal Science
2014 – in progress.

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Article Title:
Evaluating waste treatment under combined configuration of biological and thermal processes.
Author(s): Xiomar Gómez, Rubén González and José F. González.

Anaerobic digestion is a wide appled technology for the treatment of wastes, agricultural residues and livestock wastes. Main products of this process are biogas which may be valorised for producing heat and electricity, and digestate. This latter stream has been traditionally used as organic amendment but due to restrictions associated with availability of land disposal and increasing social concerns, it is becoming a challenging task to find a final solution to digestate management.

Based on crieteria associated with sustainability and circular economy the best alternative for valorising organic materials seem those that can be vinculated some how to a cascade approach where energy production should be one of the main factors when evaluating technical feasibility. Otherwise, this cascade approach would lead to an increasing demand in energy as waste materials are subsequently transformed from low value raw materials in the initial stages to higher value products when approaching final processing.

The integration of anaerobic digestion and thermal conversion processes has been evaluated for the enhanced treatment of wastes streams generated by small urban areas. A theoretical analysis was performed for three scenarios; the treatment of wastewaters under conventional process (Scenario 1), integration with the treatment of organic wastes (Scenario 2) and co-valorisation of  gaseous fuel derived from decentralised installations (Scenario 3). The selected plant design was based on electricity production via combined heat and power units using renewables as fuels.

The best performing scenario given electricity production was Scenario 2 due to scale factor which favours higher size installations. However, Scenario 3 results an interesting alternative for highly disperse populated areas where transport costs and emissions would play against this type of valorisation approach, but however centralised treatment of side-streams is still feasible and can be performed in a separate installation gattering all by-products to perform final-step transformation.

Enhanced waste treatment, anaerobic digestion, thermal processes, electricity production, decentralised treatment.

X. Gómez is an experienced researcher at University of León (Spain) with an extended carrier in evaluating waste valorization under anaerobic digestion and combined processes for increasing efficiency and yields. X. Gómez has published several research papers regarding methane and hydrogen production, evaluating conditions for process optimization and reactor configurations.

Her professional carrier has been linked also to studying global approaches of waste treatment considering energy efficiency and quality of the organic material. Her recent publications have been focus on analyzing the integration of microbial treatment processes along with thermal treatments to increase yields of energetic products and reduce the need of an additional management for dealing with low added value side-streams.

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Article Title:
On the modifications of hybrid methods and its application to solving ODE and Volterra integral equations.
Author(s): Mehriban Imanova.

ODE and its applications are studying a very long time. And therefore, there are wide classes of methods to solve that, which are fundamentally investigated by many authors. Here, by using some relation between the Volterra integral equation and ODE have been constructed the hybrid multistep methods of the forward jumping type, to solve the Volterra integral equations, which are the same with the methods have applied to solve ODE. Prove that by using one and the same algorithm one can be solved the initial-value problem for ODE and Volterra integrodifferential equations. By using the method of undetermined coefficients has been received the system of linear and nonlinear algebraic equations to determine the values of the coefficients of these methods. As is known by using the solutions of these systems one can be determined the exactness of these methods. In some cases, we succeeded have estimated the maximal values of the order of accuracy for our methods. And also the necessary conditions imposed on the coefficients of the proposed method have been studied. Here by comparison of the hybrid and Gauss quadrature formula have established some relationship between of them. And also constructed the symmetric methods the advantages for which have been shown. The methods, constructed here, are applied to solving Volterra integro-differential and the Volterra integral equations, which are the same with the methods, applied to solving of the ODE. Constructed concrete methods with the order of accuracy p<=9 some of which have been applied to solving model problems.

The scientific field of activity of M.N.Imanova – study of the numerical solution of the initial-value problem for the ODE, investigation of the integro-differential equations of Volterra type. For solving these equations, she has constructed the stable methods with higher order of accuracy and has found for them the region of stability. For this aim, M.N.Imanova applied the multistep methods with the constant coefficients to solving integro-differential equations. M.N.Imanova has constructed some numerical methods of varying quality and has shown them advantages. For the solving practical problems, which can be investigated and described by differential or integro-differential equations, M.N.İmanova proposed to investigation the approximate solution of ordinary differential, integral and integro-differential equations of Volterra type (iteration and numerical methods). Some of  modifications of the quadrature method are used for finding the numerical solution of the integral equations of Volterra type. The basic deficiency of these methods is that the calculation of the values of the solution for the equation at any point reduces to calculation of integral sum with the variable boundary. In other words, the volume of the calculations which are required for finding the values of the solution of the considering equation in general is unbounded. In order to overcome this difficulty, the supervisor of the project must construct the new methods. For application these methods to solving some problems, can be use the predictor-corrector method. The supervisor of the project must construct an effective method for finding numerical solutions of the initial-value problem for arbitrary order ordinary differential equations and must show theirs advantages. She must investigate of the application of the multistep methods to solving integro-differential equations of Volterra type. M.N.İmanova has published the received results in the journals with the higher priority. Imanova has performed about her results at many international conferences (Conference in Numerical Analysis, Book of Abstracts, Chania, Crete, Greece; World Academy of Science, engineering and Technology, Paris, Fransa; International conference on differential equations, difference equations and special functions, Patras, Greece; 9th International conference on mathematical problems in engineering, aerospace and sciences, AIP, Vienna, Austria; World Academy of Science, engineering and Technology, Dubai), Cambridje UK,  and published in the form of papers in many leading journals.

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Article Title:
Scenario Study on The Future Fuel Mix and Its Influence on the WtE Sector in Oslo City.
Author(s): Liang Wang, Michael Becidan and Elisa Magnanelli.

In accordance with the EU Waste Hierarchy, if waste cannot be avoided or products re-used, material recovery and Waste-to-Energy (WtE, also called Energy-from-Waste, EfW) are the preferred treatment methods for waste. Evidently, WtE should only processed waste, often called Municipal Solid Waste (MSW), that cannot be recycled. MSW is typically a complex and heterogeneous mixture of various fractions from different sources.
In the last years, increasing focuses have been put on Circular Economy. Initiation and implementation of new policy and legislation aming for transition to circular economy will promot development of various treatment, recycling and recovery of MSW. This will happen mainly due to increased recycling targets but also focus on separate collection (to promote re-use) and alternative treatments (e.g. anaerobic digestion for food waste). It will nlfuence amounts and composition of the waste that will be incinerated in WtE plants, which in turn affect operation of WtE from different aspects.
In this work, scenarios under frame of circular economy have been defined to predict changes of amounts and properties (composition, moisture content, ash content, etc.) of waste going to WtE. Key factors considered for conducting scenarion analysis include increase of material recycling rate, population evolution, consumer behaviour and others that might considerably affect quantity and propery of waste. The amount and composition of waste was evaluated up to year 2035 on a yearly basis waste processed by Renovasjons og gjenvinningsetaten, the municipal authority in charge of the waste in Oslo city, Norway.
The main lessons learned from the studied scenarios can be summarized as such: (1) the evolution of both population (i.e. the number of inhabitants) and consumption (i.e. waste generation rate) have a large impact, i.e. their increase might mean that the WtE current capacity has to be maintained or even increased; (2) meeting the “general” EU material recycling target (65% for MSW by 2035) means that several fractions (plastic, paper, etc.) in the MSW have to be recycled at very high levels (90+%), (3) it seems probable that the energy content of the waste to WtE will decrease and (4) such studies should be carried out at the city/regional level as many specific conditions and constraints must be included in the scenarios to bring valuable information. Specific aspects such as the fates of the biogas digestate and of the material recycling rejects are also addressed.
Under studied scenarios, compositions of resulting new MSW (defined both as main fractions and chemical elements) are used as input in a WtE dynamic model developed in-house in order to obtain information on the possible negative impacts on plant operation and propose countermeasures whenever necessary..

Waste to Energy (WtE), Energy from Waste (EfW), scenario analysis, circular economy, MSW (Municipal Solid Waste), dynamic model.

Dr. Wang Liang is working as Research Scientist (permanent position) in SINTEF Energy Research at Trondheim Norway. He holds a PhD in Thermal Energy from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology at Trondheim Norway. Dr. Wang started to work as a research scientist in SINTEF Energy Research from year 2010. Dr. Wang’s main research focuses are characterization of biomass and wastes using combined analytical instruments and techniques, advanced biomass carbonization technology, experimental and kinetic study of torrefaction, pyrolysis, gasification and combustion of biomass and charcoal, ash chemistry during biomass and waste thermal conversion. Dr. Wang has 85 publications listed in Scopus, and a h-factor of 21. He works as project manager and key researcher in several EU, Nordic and National R&D projects.  He has collaboration with key industrial partners, 20 institutions and 6 scientific councils worldwide.

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Article Title:
Experimental density, speed of sound, refractive index and viscosity of binary systems 2-propanol + di-isopropyl-ether (DIPE), 2-propanol + 1-hexene and di-isopropyl-ether (DIPE) + 1-hexene at the temperature of 298.15 K.
Author(s): Ana Carolina Kulik, Gabriel Rubio-Pérez, Natalia Muñoz-Rujas, Fernando Aguilar and Eduardo Montero Garcia.

About 25% of CO2 emissions in the EU come from the transport sector. In this segment, road transport is the largest emitter, accounting for over 70% of all greenhouse gas emissions. One of the main strategies for reducing emissions is the promotion of low emission alternative energy for transport, such as biofuels.
Some alcohols and ethers, such as oxygenate additives, are added to gasoline to reduce the emission of gases that produce environmental impact. The advantages of these oxygenates can be classified into several categories. First, they can be obtained from renewable or agricultural raw materials, reducing dependence on fossil sources. Second, they increase the number of octanes, increasing the anti-knock effect of gasoline. Then, the compression ratio of the engines can be increased without the risk of crashing, leading to higher power delivery. From a combustion standpoint, the production of carbon monoxide and volatile hydrocarbons from the combustion of alcohols is lower than that of gasoline. Among the thermodynamic properties, the heat of vaporization of alcohols is high and leads to a reduction in the combustion temperature peak, which means lower nitrogen oxide emissions. In this case, di-isopropyl-ether (DIPE) and 2-propanol have selected as representatives of these oxygenated compounds. Besides, 1-hexene has been selected as representative of the hydrocarbons present in the fuels.
This work reports experimental densities, speeds of sound, refractive indices and viscosity of binary systems 2-propanol + di-isopropyl-ether (DIPE), 2-propanol + 1-hexene and di-isopropyl-ether (DIPE) + 1-hexene at the temperature of 298.15 K. Excess molar volumes, deviations in isentropic compressibility and deviations in speeds of sound were correlated by the Redlich-Kister polynomial.

Density, refraction index, speed of sound, viscosity, di-isopropyl ether.

Ana Carolina Kulik: Energy Efficiency Specialist. Bsc. in Industrial Electrical Engineering (2010; Federal Technological University of Paraná, Brazil) with a Postgraduate in Energy Efficiency (2018; Federal Technological University of Paraná, Brazil), currently studying a MSc. in Renewable Energy and Energetic Efficiency (Instituto Politécnico de Bragança, Portugal). More than 10 years of experience as Sales Engineer in companies such as Bosch and Siemens (Curitiba and Florianópolis, Brazil). Researcher at the Smart Grid Laboratory of the University of Kempten, Germany (Oct. 2012 – March 2013) performing MatLab analysis (voltage, current and power). Researcher at the Energy Engineering Laboratory of the Universidad de Burgos, Spain (Oct. 2019 – Jan. 2020), performing measurements of thermophysical properties of gasoline additives.

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Article Title:
In-situ experimental study on heat exchange capacity of long-span energy tunnel exchangers.
Author(s): Wen Guan and Xiaohui Cheng.

Tunnel geothermal exchangers are a popular new type of geothermal exchanger for use in ground source heat pump systems due to their technical and cost improvements over traditional borehole geothermal exchangers. An in-situ full-scale study using the thermal response and thermal performance tests (TRT and TPT) is performed to investigate the heat exchange capacity of Badaling Tunnel of Beijing-Zhangjiakou Railway. This paper analyzes the influences of heating power, inlet water temperature, air temperature, circulating water flow velocity, operation mode, and piping arrangement on the heat exchange capacity of tunnel geothermal exchangers. The test results can be used for the thermal design of energy tunnel.

Energy tunnel; Ground source heat pump; Thermal response tests (TRT); Thermal performance tests (TPT).

Personal Details

Name: Wen Guan

Corresponding Address: Department of Civil Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084

Recent Education and Research Training

Jul. 2018 – date                Tsinghua University, CHN

Research Assistant in Civil Engineering

Sep. 2015 – Jun. 2018     Xi’an Jiaotong University, CHN

 Master on “Study on CFG Energy Pile for Pavement Deicing and Cooling” Degree awarded in June 2018

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Article Title:
Smart Grid Optimization via Entropy Enhanced Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (EE_CMAES).
Author(s): Kartik Pandya.

The modern Smart Grid power system is subjected to large penetration of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) such as Wind, Solar and Hydro. The variable and intermittent nature of such RES create difficulties in real-time optimal operation of smart grid. The mathematical optimization model of the power system in the presence of RES consists of mixture of complicated linear and non-linear constraints with variety of continuous, discrete and integer variables. To solve such complex optimization problem, there is an urgent need to develop an efficient and robust optimization algorithm. This talk discusses the application of 2nd rank winner hybrid meta-heuristic algorithm entitled, “Entropy Enhanced Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (EE_CMAES)” for smart grid optimization. It got 2nd rank in IEEE PES sponsored optimization competition at IEEE PES General Meeting 2018 at Portland, USA. Cross Entropy method is used for global exploration due to its fast convergence, whereas CMAES method is used for local exploitation because unlike other methods, it has excellent adaptive step length mechanism which makes it suitable for fine tuning. The proposed method is tested on IEEE 57-bus system with the aim to minimize total fuel cost of thermal generators plus expected uncertainty cost of RES plus compensation cost for controllable loads. The various simulation results clearly indicate the superiority of proposed method over the modern heuristic optimization methods, which makes it perfectly suitable for online economic operation of smart grid.

CMAES, Cross Entropy, Optimization, Renewable Energy Source, Smart Grid.

Kartik Pandya is a Professor in Electrical Engineering Department at CHARUSAT University, Anand, Gujarat, India. His research area includes computational intelligence methods, power system optimization, smart grid, renewable integrations and power system protection. His Proposed optimization algorithms entitled “Levy Differential Evolutionary Particle Swarm Optimization (Levy DEEPSO)” and “Entropy Enhanced Covariance Matrix Adaptation Evolution Strategy (EECMAES)” had secured the 3rd and 2nd places in the IEEE PES worldwide competitions on Operational Planning of Sustainable power systems, respectively held at the 2017 and 2018 IEEE PES General Meetings, Chicago and Portland (USA). His proposed algorithms entitled “EVDEPSO” and “IC_DEEPSO” had secured the 2nd and 4th places, respectively in IEEE competition at World Congress on Computational Intelligence (WCCI) 2018 conference at Brazil. His proposed algorithms entitled “HL_PS_VNSO” and “GM_VNPSO” secured the 2nd and 3rd places in international competitions, respectively at GECCO 2019, Czech Republic and 2019 IEEE CEC, New-Zealand

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Article Title:
Using food waste residues for sustainable agriculture: the case of biosolarization.
Author(s): Yigal Achmon.

Food, agriculture, and the environment are intricately connected. In order to sustain a world with a population of 9 billion people by 2050, the world’s agriculture and the food processing industry will have to maximize resource utilization. As such, food waste can be utilized as a soil amendment to enhance sustainable agricultural techniques. There is an ongoing effort to reduce the use of hazardous chemicals in soil pest management, and the use of food waste as an amendment instead is one possible solution to the problem. One of the environment-friendly processes is anaerobic soil disinfestation (ASD), that when coupled with passive solar heating, is also known as soil biosolarization (SBS). In this seminar I will try to show the complexity of SBS done with waste residues by looking at its physical, chemical and biological impacts on soils, pathogens, weeds and plants. The relevant experiments were done by using industrial tomato processing waste, which is a common waste stream in California, in a bio-solarized application. By combining laboratory studies with greenhouse and field trials, we were able to recognize the impact SBS has on weeds, fungi pathogens and plant phytotoxicity. The results showed that our laboratory system that simulates in the lab the biosolarization done in the field, can predict the behavior in the field of the soil’s microbial community. The laboratory results were later translated into greenhouse and field trials that showed the ability of biosolarization to control pests in a fast and environmental friendly procedure without major penalties to plant growth. This research will help to open new sustainable venues for future valorization of industrial food waste.

Biosolrization, Soil Microbiomes, Food Waste, Integrated pest, management, Sustainable Agriculture.

Dr. Yigal Achmon is a food and agriculture scientist. He currently holds an Assistant Professor position at the Guangdong Technion-Israel Institute of Technion (GTIIT) (https://yigalachmon.wixsite.com/achmonslab). He holds a BSc in Biochemistry and food science from the Faculty of Agriculture at the Hebrew university of Jerusalem and direct PhD in Biotechnology and Food Engineering from the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology. Dr. Achmon had spent three years at Professor Christopher Simmon’s lab at the University of California at Davis as a postdoctoral researcher. There he had developed an interdisciplinary approach to industrial food waste valorization research which included collaborating with a plant scientist and a microbiologist among others. After his time at the University of California at Davis he had done a short postdoctoral at the Volacni Israeli agricultural center, working on the microbiome of fresh cow milk. He then continued to a lecturer position at the GTIIT along with a research position at Ka Yin Leung’s group working on the microbial resistome..

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Article Title:
Biologically Synthesized Silica Nanoparticles as Thermal Fluid in Parabolic Solar Panels.
Author(s): Margarita Ramírez-Carmona, Carlos Ocampo-López, Leidy Rendón-Castrillón, Enrique Corzo-Deluquez, Lina Pineda-Muñoz and Adiela Ruíz-Chamorro.

In this work, it was proposed the production of biologically synthesized silica nanoparticles as thermal fluid in parabolic solar panels at laboratory level.
Silica nanoparticles were produced from construction sand, in two stages. In the first one, the biosynthesis broth was produced by Aspergillus niger fermentation in a 1L bioreactor at 200 rpm, constant aeration, and a time of 9 days. The kinetics of the fermentation was performed by monitoring the pH and quantifying malic acid, citric acid, and sucrose concentration using the HPLC. The separation process was carried out on days 5 and 9. The results obtained in the supernatants were: for day 5 a pH of 2.62 and concentrations of citric and malic acid 9.31g/L and 3.99g/L respectively; for day 9 a pH value of 1.71 and acid concentrations of 15.78g/L for citrus and 4.16 g/L for malic.
In the second stage, each supernatant was contacted with 18% construction sand in a 500L reactor with mechanical agitation, at a temperature of 25ºC, and a contact time of 30 min. Subsequently, the separation process was carried out. The supernatant was analyzed by FTIR spectrophotometry between 4000 to 400 cm-1 and the quantification of extracted Si. The metal extraction efficiency was 19% for both broths and the conversion to Si nanoparticles. The vibration peaks in the FTIR were characteristic of the presence of silica nanoparticles in the fingerprint region, specifically in the wavenumbers 1020 cm-1 and 1150 cm-1 which represent the vibrations of asymmetric stretching Si-O-Si. The weak bands at 900 and 949 cm-1 are possibly attributed to the symmetric stretching vibrations Si-OH and Si-O-Si in amorphous silica. A pH of 1.71 exhibits higher absorbance, which reflects, in quantitative terms, a higher concentration of silica nanoparticles.
Finally, a prototype solar radiation test bench for parabolic systems was built, provided with a radiation source that falls on a translucent pipe that transports the nanoparticles, which has a pump and a series of thermocouples. The heat capacity of the biotechnologically produced silica nanoparticle solution was 0.72 ± 0.05 kJ/kgK, using material and energy balances in the flow circuit.

Parabolic, solar panels, nanofluids, silica nanoparticles, biosynthesis.

Dr. Carlos Ocampo-López is a Titular Professor at Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana (UPB) in the Faculty of Chemical Engineering and Researcher of the Center of Studies and Research in Biotechnology (CIBIOT). He holds a Ph.D. in engineering in energy and thermodynamics. He is a scientific advisor and consultant for organizations such as UNEP, UNIDO, and MINCIENCIAS in green and sustainable chemistry. He developed his doctoral academic internships at McGill University in Montreal (Canada), Universidad Politecnica de Valencia in Valencia (Spain), and Universidade de São Paulo in São Paulo (Brazil). In 2011 he was certified by WIPO in patent writing. He is graduated from the Practical Technical Commercialization Program, University of Texas at Austin (2013). As a researcher, he has published on the topics of bioprocess design, biomaterials, process simulation, bioinformatics, and biomining. He was selected as “Young Researcher” by MINCIENCIAS to develop applied research in biomining cooperation with SUMICOL Company. He has granted two patents, one of them related to a system for liquid solvent separation for industrial applications, in a group with other inventors; the second in 2015 related to a system for fluid separation. He has experience in process design and its implementation: Government of Antioquia – Pilot plant for mineral processing; Empresas Públicas de Medellín (EPM) – Bioprocess plant for wastewater treatment.

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Article Title:
Assessment of revenues and expenses of an enterprise in energy field.
Author(s): Elvin Abdullayev.

In market conditions, each energy business entity acts as a separate producer, which is economically and legally independent. An economic entity independently chooses a business field, forms a product range, determines costs, sets prices, takes into account sales revenue, and therefore, identifies profit or loss based on performance results. In market conditions, making a profit is the direct goal of the production of a business entity. Realization of this goal is possible only if the business entity produces products (work, services) that, by their consumer properties, meet the needs of society.

In article some questions of recognition and assessment of revenues of the enterprise in the conditions of market economy are considered. And also, the order of formation of income and expenses of the enterprise for a cash method and a accrual method are discussed.

income, ordinary activities, sale, accrual method, cash basis, revenue.

Elvin Abdullayev is a PhD  at the Azerbaijan State University of Economics. He also currently works in the finance department of Azercell Telecom LLC, the largest telecom company in the country. He has been working in the field of financial accounting for about 20 years. He graduated from the Azerbaijan State University of Economics in 2013 with an MBA in finance. He has an ACCA DipİFR degree. He conducts trainings and publishes articles in the field of IFRS. He has published about 15 scientific articles in this field  . He also conducts research in the field of finance and energy at the International Training and Project Center. It was established using the experience of the Continuing Education Centers of Oxford, Harvard and Cambridge universities, which are considered to be the world’s leading universities. He has conducted research and obtained certificates in the field of finance and accounting at Istanbul Business University. The main research area is ACCA Dipfr, tax, energy and finance.

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Article Title:
Wind energy exploitation in urban environment: the effect of roof shape.
Author(s): Carlos Oliveira, José Baptista and Adelaide Cerveira.

With the excess use of energy from non-renewable sources, it is crucial that new energy generation solutions are adopted to to reverse this scenario. In this sense, the integration of renewable energy sources in high-rise buildings reduces the need for energy demand from the grid to maximize the self-sustainability of common services (lighting, elevators, air conditioning, etc.) or, if possible, even to guarantee the consumption of the entire load profile of the building.
The growth of population density in cities has raised concerns worldwide about its sustainability and the level of quality of life that can be offered to its inhabitants. The interest in renewable energies by architects, project developers, and local governments for small wind turbines is mainly related to the attractive prospects for future applications in the urban environment with new built urbanizations adapted for the installation of electricity production in the building.
Local production is the main economic advantage that could indeed provide an effective answer to both the growing demand for renewable energy and the increased attention in buildings with a sustainable and low-energy design. As it is expected that more people will move to urban areas during the next few decades, more energy sources that are safe, affordable, and environmentally friendly need to be exploited to be sufficient for the growing population.
The aim of this work is to critically evaluate the energetic suitability of a Gorlov vertical axis wind turbine and a typical horizontal axis wind turbine installation in different rooftops of buildings with one energy strategy, that is seeking to maximize the cities own generation of renewable energy and to minimize the impacts on health and on the local and global environment.
Wind turbines installed on top of buildings is a technology that can have promising potential, only if conditions are created for their integration into roofs. The uncertainty that exists associated with the installation of turbines on the roofs is directly associated with the acceleration effect that the shape of the roof may have on air drafts, as well as the height of the building. This paper aims to present the results of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations in order to identify the effect of different roof shapes on energy production by wind turbines, justifying with matrix’s calculation processed in MATLAB with various meteorological data that will be used to calculate the production of each turbine for each roof type. Thus, it is concluded from two different examples of roof types, which best favours the wind turbine for energy production..

Renewable energies, wind turbine, roof shape, wind power utilization, building aerodynamics..

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Article Title:
Biogas recovery from paper waste by thermophilic co-digestion with sewage sludge.
Author(s): Aijun Zhu, Yu Qin, Jing Wu and Yu-You Li.

Anaerobic digestion (AD) is considered to be a promising technology for treating organic wastes and generate biogas as fuel. Biogas contains methane, which is one of the promising renewable energy and attracts increasing interest because of the growing concerns over global energy shortage and global warming. Sewage sludge, the byproduct of the wastewater treatment plant, is expected to grow continuously in decades. Treatment of sewage sludge via anaerobic digestion has been carried out widely and attached to increased interest in many countries due to its environment-friendly features. On the other hand, paper waste (PW) represents one of the largest fractions of municipal solid waste, whose high organic content suits biogas production from the AD process. Co-digestion using PW and sewage sludge as a substrate may enhance the performance of the AD. A better C/N by altering co-digestion and nutrients balance could establish positive synergisms in the biogas production and supply the depleted nutrients in each component.

Materials and methods

The sewage sludge was directly taken from the local wastewater treatment plant, which consisted of primary sludge and waste activated sludge at the ratio 1:1 (based on volume). The paper waste consisted of office paper, tissue paper, and newspapers, which are the three largest PW in Japan. The experiment was carried out in a single-stage continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR), which was fed semi-continuously (drawing and feeding twice a day) with sewage sludge containing paper waste to evaluate their organic removal rate, biogas production, and process stability. The CSTR was operated under thermophilic (55±1oC). Five different mixing ratios of sewage sludge and PW based on TS (4:0, 4:2, 4:4, 4:6, 4:8), which corresponding PW content 0% (PW-0), 33.3% (PW-33.3), 50% (PW-50), 60% (PW-60), 66.6% (PW-66.6) were taken sequentially in test.

Results

In the mono AD of sewage sludge, ammonia concentration was the highest in all conditions, reaching 1.66±0.08 g/L. Because of the low organic loading rate (OLR) (1.11 gVS/L/d), there was no ammonia inhibition, and the reactor was running stably. The pH, alkalinity, and ammonia concentration were decreased with the PW while still settled at stable values under each steady-state. No volatile fatty acid (VFAs) was accumulated in all conditions. The biogas production also increased with the OLR increased. However, the methane content decreased because the carbohydrate content in the substrate increased. In the thermophilic AD, stable methane production in high OLR utilizing a mixture of sewage sludge and PW was proved possible at OLR 3.45 gVS/L/d. The organic removal efficiency of total solids (TS), volatile solids (VS), carbohydrates, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) increased slightly with the PW content..

Methane production, co-digestion, paper waste, sewage sludge, long-term operation.

Aijun Zhu is a doctoral student at the Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Tohoku University, Japan. His current major field of research is the organic fraction of municipal solid waste(including food waste, paper waste, sewage sludge) treatment and biogas recovery through anaerobic digestion method. Additional research interest topics include bioresource recovery from organic waste with anaerobic bacteria..

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Article Title:
A proposal of innovative adjustable vertical axis wind turbine.
Author(s): Rosso Carlo, Roberto Trapananti and Fabio Favaro.

Wind energy explotation has been practiced for millenia. Starting from Egyptian sails and passing throught Dutch wind mills, wind energy played a key role in imporoving the quality of human life. Despite the advent of the fossil fuels, wind turbines were able to survive and today they are among the most widespread variable renewable energies (VRE). It is in this context that the project of Rotor s.r.l. startup borns, aming to make wind energy explotation advantageous also for small scale.
The project consists in the development of an innovative micro-vertical axis wind turbine (VAWT) equipped with a patented adjustable shield able to regulate the performances both in terms of angular velocity and of power coefficient (Cp). Likewise Savonius wind turbines, the driving force of the rotor is the drag acting on the three blades. The shield is designed to protect the returning side of the turbine in order to reduce the breaking moment that arises in this region. The shield is oriented with respect to the upstream wind’s direction thanks to a rudder mounted on the top of the device. The relative angular position between the rudder and the shield can be set by means of an actuator and it determines the behavior of the turbine. The aim is to create a device able to withstand wide ranges of wind velocity exploiting the shield as a performance and angular velocity controller.
To investigate the turbine performances, aerodynamics analysis are carried out throught wind tunnel tests and computationl fluid dynamics simulations (CFD). First, CFD model is validated employing wind tunnel data coming from Politecnico di Torino. Then, the computational model is used to investigate the system’s respose as flow velocity and shield position change. The turbine performances are analyzed plotting the Cp values as the Tip Speed Ratio vary. The results highlight that the more the shield protect the returning side the greater the Cp is.
The final aim of this system is to make wind enery source more stable and suitable for domestic applications together with solar photovoltaics. Expecially far from towns, the VRE integration can rapresent an effective way to mitigate global warming. Moreover, in remote areas where poor solar sources are available and no grid connections are provided, the implementation of micro-wind technologies in stand alone configuaration may rapresent a feasible option to fossil fuels generators.

Micro-Wind Turbine, global warming, CFD, VAWT, VRE, Drag, Savonius.

Carlo Rosso was born in Savona in 1975. He graduated as Mechanical Engineer at the Politecnico di Torino in 2001, he holds a PhD in Machine design and Construction from Politecnico di Torino in the 2005, he is Associate Professor in Machine Design at the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering of Politecnico di Torino since 2016. His main research topics are focusing on the dynamics of mechanical components with particular attention for the gears and the metal replacement in automotive industries. In particular he is focused on the design and life assessment of gearbox components with emphasis on gears and bearings. He is author of 4 patents and founder of two start-ups and one of this is Spin-Off of Politecnico di Torino. Rotor s.r.l. is the start-up that will produce and commercialize the wind turbine presented in this paper. Carlo Rosso is one of the inventors of the solution, in particular referred to the mechanical aspect. He is (co-)author of 50+ peer-reviewed publications about machine design topics. He has a good relationship with the industrial tissue of the Piedmont region and he had signed industrial research agreements for more than 920000 €. He is active member of SAE international and SEM..

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Article Title:
Biomimetic and Sustainable Energy for Promotion Smart Buildings And Urban Agriculture.
Author(s): Jan Dobrowolski and Obid Tursunov.

Biomimetic is key factor for innovative applied energy for replacement human activity based positive feedback system by negative feedback , as basis for homeostasis of whole Biosphere and for  optimization production of renewable energy and sustainable energy-driven bioeconomy for sustainable management of the natural resources adopted to climate change and situation connected with pandemic COVID-19. Novel idea is promotion Sustainable Urban Agriculture by Smart Buildings with Underground Centers for Production of Bioenergy by Wastes Biomanagement and Wastewater Biotreatment and Production Pollutants-free Food in big cities. Green Buildings would be constructed by innovative biomaterials and nanostructures for better use of  solar light and adaptation to climate change including  fixation of carbon dioxide for production of biofuels and value-added products. Carbon dioxide reduction strategy can be achieved in effective way by facilitation the applications of  biofuels, biohydrocarbons, biogases etc. The transformation  and  utilization of carbon dioxide is limited by kinetic and high thermodynamic stability due to great oxidation state of carbon. The productive way to overcome such difficulties could be application of catalysts which are capable to crack the kinetic and thermodynamic stability of carbon dioxide and convert it into value-added bio-yields. Experts have been struggling to develop effective and economically reasonable catalysts  as one of the crucial factors for conversion of carbon dioxide into useful bio-products. In order to make this technology sustainable, the hydrogen, which is the main reagent for transformation of carbon dioxide to useful bio-products, has to be ecologically and economically derived by renewable energy sources. As well as, transdisciplinary approach should be taken into consideration, involving not only chemical-mechanical technologies, but also biotechnology, nanotechnology, bionanotechnology, biophysics and ecological system design adequate to bioeconomics-driven sustainable development promoting better environmental health and green jobs.

Bioenergy, Biofuels, Catalytic mechanisms, Climate change, COVID-19 pandemic, Smart buildings and urban agriculture.

Prof. Dr. Obid Tursunov has been working as a leading international expert-scholar in several institutions based in different countries (China, Poland, Russia, Uzbekistan, etc.). He was awarded a Doctorate degree in technical sciences from AGH University of Science and Technology (Poland) within the UNESCO/Poland Co-Sponsored Fellowship. He is specialized in Environmental Biotechnology and Bioenergetics with special focus on the thermo-chemical-catalytic conversion of renewable sources into value-added energy products, and laser biotechnology for sustainable development initiated by his science mentor distinguished Professor Jan W. Dobrowolski. He is an author and co-author of numerous scientific papers, book chapters and brief articles published in well-known journals and magazines. He has also disseminated the output of his scientific research achievements and findings at more than 30 international forums. He is a Senior Member of the Hong-Kong Chemical, Biological, and Environmetal Engineering Society (HKCBEES). Since 2018, he has been serving as a recognized reviewer of the well-ranked Elsevier and Springer’s journals. He has been awarded by UNESCO and won Russia Federal “5-100” grant for substantial contribution to science. As well as, Prof. Dr. Obid Tursunov is a laureate of Elsevier’s “Best Scopus Award 2019” which was held in Tashkent. His motto is to create and leave a better, sustainable and ecologically friendly environment for the current and upcoming generations.

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Article Title:
An integer programming model for scheduling of load profiles in households.
Author(s): Pedro Barros, Adelaide Cerveira and José Baptista.

In past years, concerns about increased energy consumption, dependence on fossil fuels, and their negative impact on the environment, along with the volatility of electricity prices have triggered the promotion of energy efficiency mechanisms and changes in the management of electrical power systems.
Technological development has led to a huge increase in the use of different types of home appliances, a situation that tends to increase even more. Combining this reality with bad behavior and bad habits of consumers, who are still far from being aware of issues related to energy efficiency, making these the main causes of high electricity consumption levels in the residential sector. Thus, there is a need to implement an energy management technology systems in this sector that, through coordination of the various consumption management resources, leads to the desired optimization regarding the use of electricity, allowing for greater operational efficiencies.
Nowadays, with the development of technology, in most households, there is a huge diversity of equipment that is increasingly efficient. However, poor consumption management in the domestic sector is also increasing and it is responsible for high and unwanted costs associated with the electricity bill. Good consumption management in the residential sector is increasingly showing itself as a crunch factor so that allied to technology growth can be implemented a management systems in the various households that allow more efficient use of energy resources. The optimization models prove to be an important tool to help efficiently manage the consumption associated with the main existing equipment at home and, consequently, allowing to reduce the electricity bills without reducing the level of consumer satisfaction.
This research has as the main aim the development of an optimization system for a smart home that allows managing the operation of some home appliances, adjusting their usage cycles to the most advantageous rates practiced in the market. Thus, it is possible to obtain reductions in the cost associated with the electricity bill and to understand the impact that changes in the behavior of domestic users can have on energy efficiency in the residential sector. In order to achieve these objectives, a study was carried out regarding the consumption load profiles of various domestic loads and the tariff regimes that are available on the market were taken into account. All this information is incorporated in an integer linear programming model to obtain the optimal tariff regime and the scheduling of the deferrable loads. So, the output of the model is which is the tariff regime that must be used and at which time the deferrable loads must start operating. In the computational results, different types of households are considered. In this way, it is possible to compare the results for different types of households and to find out the impact, on the optimal solution, of some existing equipment in the electric system of the household..

Energetic efficiency, integer linear programming, optimization, residential load profile, energy consumption, household equipment..

Pedro Silva Barros was born in Vila Real, Portugal, in 1995. He has received a B.S.c degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal in 2018 and he’s currently working toward a Master’s degree in Electrical and Computer Engineering at the University of Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro, Vila Real, Portugal.
His research interest includes energetic efficiency, optimization theory and photovoltaic power system.

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Article Title:
Development of an efficient tool for autonomous and hybrid renewable energy systems management.
Author(s): Philipp Racher and José Baptista.

In recent years, the agenda for climate and the promotion of renewable energies has therefore played a crucial role in the pursuit of the objective of reducing greenhouse gases. Increased environmental concerns regarding CO2 emissions and air pollutants resulting from the combustion of conventional energy sources, as well as the search for a solution for energy independency from fossil energy sources, led to an increased use of renewable energy technologies. The range of supply and partial supply solutions with renewable energies also continues to grow in the area of micro consumers in the public sector and urban loads such as traffic lights, street lighting, surveillance cameras, decorative fountaines or emergency call stations. However, products that can be bought on the market are compact systems that are limited to a certain application and cannot supply a wide variety of consumers. Existing design tools for renewable energy systems focus on the economic efficiency of these systems. For the public urban loads described above, however, reliability is the most important issue. This applies mainly to systems that have the option to work without being connected to the power grid due to their low energy consumption.
This paper describes the development of a easy friendly tool that enables end-users to design a renewable energy system for different urban loads with a maximum power consumption of a few kilowatts. This makes it possible to find a solution for a wide range of applications that works stand-alone or partially independently from the power grid. Photovoltaic systems or hybrid systems with a PV/wind power combination are available for power generation. Further options are the location, the connection to the public grid and the desired reliability. The databases stored in the tool contain technical components, meteorological weather data and data for economic calculations. The users can select from these databases or alternatively enter their own data information manually. Hybrid solutions are particularly suitable for stand-alone systems which must be highly fail-safe. The combination of wind and photovoltaics can also minimize the size of the energy storage. The main aim of this paper is to develop a tool that allows designing a renewable energy generation system (REGS) for individual small energy urban loads. With this tool, the users are able to build a REGS for their individual requirements and to estimate the costs as well as the economic and ecologic efficiency..

Renewable Energy, Hybrid systems, Stand-alone systems, Urban loads..

Mr. Philipp Racher was born on 05.02.1994 in Vienna, Austria. After his school education he started his bachelor studies in Urban Renewable Energy Technologies at the University of Applied Sciences Technikum Wien in 2013. Due to his outstanding performance during his studies he received two scholarships which were issued by the university. Within the scope of an international project, he wrote his bachelor thesis in Yichang, China, and was then able to complete his education in minimum study time and with excellent results.

After a one-year break, he began the second phase of his studies for the Master of Science in Engineering. In that year he undertook a six-month cultural trip to Southeast Asia and started working for a plant engineering company.

A research question from the Portuguese University of UTAD enabled him to write his Master’s thesis abroad at this university. The title of the thesis is Development of a Tool that Allows the Design of Autonomous and Hybrid Renewable Energy System. This thesis is also the basis for the paper in front of you.

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Article Title:
Two-layer immiscible methanol/ethanol-electrolyte-water systems for fuel cells.
Author(s): Tarantseva Klara and Yakhind Mikhail.

This review considers the two-layer immiscible methanol/ethanol– electrolyte–water systems described in the literature, which are proposed for membraneless fuel cells. It has been shown that for the two-layer methanol–electrolyte–water systems, the list of electrolytes used is very limited and includes salts of 3 anions only (PO4 3-, CO3 2-, SbS4 3-), only K+ and Rb+ are acceptable as cations (the latter for carbonate). For the two-layer ethanol–electrolyte–water systems, the list of electrolytes used includes salts of 8 inorganic anions (PO4 3-,  CO3 2-, SO4 2-, S2O3 2-, NO3 -, F-, Cl-, SbS4 3-), as well as potassium and sodium hydroxides and salts of 2 organic anions (citrates and tartrates). For most anions, only alkali metal cations (including K+, a+, in some cases Rb+, Cs+, only Cs+ for chloride) are acceptable. But for sulfates, nitrates and citrates, ammonium cation is also applied, and only for sulfates, 6 cations (2+) and cation Al3+ are used in addition (but K+ and Rb+ are not used).

Fuel cells, membraneless, two-layer, immiscible, alcohol–water systems..

Doctor of Technical Sciences, Professor Klara Tarantseva is Chief of the Department of Biotechnology and Environment Protection in Penza State Technological University, where she head of postgraduate and doctoral students in the field of research on techno sphere safety, resource and energy conservation. She is Head of the scientific project conducted jointly by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research and the National Research Foundation of the South African Republic &quot;New type of membraneless fuel cells on the basis of immiscible liquids&quot;. From 1984 to 1995, Dr. Tarantseva was researcher at the laboratory of corrosion studies, Scientific and Research Centre of Antibiotics, Russia, where she managed the projects devoted to development and corrosion protection of chemical-pharmaceutical equipment.

In 1996-2000 she was an assistant professor at the Department of Quality Management of Penza State Technological University. From 2000 to Present she is Chief of the Department of Biotechnologies and Environment protection and in 2010 -2016 she was also Vice-rector for Research the same University. This period she managed two main projects &quot;Development of Enzymatic Technology for the Synthesis of 7-Aminocephalosporanic Acid and the Choice of Optimal Safe Industrial Technology,&quot; and &quot;Development of scientific foundations of energy and resource-saving processes of impulse destruction of oil”. December 1995: PhD, Chemistry. Moscow State Universite of Chemical Engineering, Moscow, Russia October 2004: Doctor of Technical Sciences (DSc in Engineering), Research and Development Institute for Physical and Chemical Measurements named after L.Karpov, Moscow, Russia Honors: Accredited expert of scientific and technical sphere of the Federal State Budgetary Scientific
Institution Scientific Research Institute in the direction of Biotechnology and Medicine.

Accredited expert of the Federal Service for Supervision in Education and Science. Member of the International Academy of Ecology and Safety of Living Sciences. Member of the Technological Platform &quot;Medicine of the Future&quot;. Member of the educational association &quot;Techno sphere Safety&quot; (Moscow State Technical University named after Bauman).
Member of the educational association &quot;Chemical Technology&quot; (Kazan State Technological University).
Member of the educational association &quot;Biotechnology&quot; (Kaliningrad State University of Technology). Honorary Worker of Higher Education of the Russian Federation. Honorary Worker of Science and Technology of the Russian Federation. Awarded the medal &quot;For Merits in the Development of Engineering Education in Russia&quot;. Has more than 200 scientific articles, including 60 indexed in the Scopus and Web of Science.
Author ID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-1313-6826;
https://publons.com/researcher/1703590/klara-tarantseva/
https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=55895350100.

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Article Title:
Numerical Simulation of the Two-Phase Flow Produced by a Nozzle Taking into Account the Early Crises of Drag for Droplets and Interphase Heat and Mass Transfer.
Author(s): Nikolai Simakov.

For the intensification of heat and mass transfer processes such as burning liquid fuels, drying and granulating polymers, wet cleaning of air from dust and harmful gaseous impurities, by increasing the interphase surface, the spraying of a liquid in a gas by injectors is applied.

The basis for calculating such processes is the knowledge of the hydrodynamic structure of created spray and the force of interaction of a droplet with a gas, and also the conception of elementary acts of heat and/or mass transfer at the level of individual droplet. Meanwhile, so far reliable methods of calculation of spraying processes are not been sufficiently developed, which is the reason of the actuality of this work.

Two basic approaches are known for mathematical modeling of two-phase flows: the method of interpenetrating continua and the theory of turbulent jets. Each of these approaches, taken separately, does not take into account the important features of the spray flow, including the following.

It has been established experimentally that the gas flow in a spray is a turbulent jet. This jet differs from the one-phase flow in the structure and the type of turbu­lent friction. The experiment showed also that the velocities of phases at each point of the flow are different, and the gas pressure drops on the order of 1–10 Pa exist along the flow axis and radius.  In addition, the substantial peculiarity in the interaction of phases has been detected, namely, the early crisis of drag for droplets, which should be taken into account in calculating a two-phase flow.

The numerical experiment on simulation of the two-phase flow formed by spraying a liquid in a gas by use a nozzle has been described in this work. The mathematical model employs the differential equations describing the non-stationary flow of a compressible fluid. For transit to their difference analog, the known Lax-Wendorff algorithm has been used. The same numerical model was used to calculate the interfacial heat and mass transfer in spray flow. For this purpose the proposed model has been supplemented by the equations of heat and mass transfer from water droplets to the air. Some variants of the model take into account the early crisis of hydrodynamic drag of droplets and the crisis of heat and mass transfer from drops to a gas.

In this work the author presents the new results. In particular, the axial and radial profiles of phase velocities have been calculated in the free spray flow of the height up to 0.7 m, as well as the distributions of vapor density and temperatures of the air and droplets. Beside, the interphase heat and mass transfer has been calculated for the flow of a gas and droplets through a cylindrical apparatus with one injector. The dependences of average temperatures of phases at the outlet of the apparatus have been determined versus the gas volume flow through the apparatus, as well as the dependences of indicated quantities on the gas pressure drop in the apparatus, its height and cross-sectional area

nozzle, spraying liquid, two-phase flow, numerical simulation, accounting the early crises, hydrodynamics drag of droplets, interphase heat and mass transfer.

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Article Title:
SIMULATION OF AGRICULTURE GREENHOUSE INTEGRATED WITH ON-ROOF PHOTO-VOLTAIC PANELS: CASE STUDY FOR A WINTER DAY.
Author(s): Alaa H. Salah, Hassan Fath, Abdelazim Negm, Mohammad Akrami and Akbar Javadi.

This paper investigates analytical study for an agricultural greenhouse (GH) integrated with Photo Voltaic/Thermal (PV/T) units in its roof and south wall in addition to Humidification-Dehumidification system (HDH). This system uses the extra solar radiation to generate electricity which is used in HDH system to condensate water recovered from plant transpiration and use it in irrigation. This system provides plants with a proper climate conditions and its requirements of solar radiation and water. MATLAB is used to develop a mathematical model based on energy equations to simulate the GH performance. The results predict that the system can be self-sufficient of energy and can provide proper conditions for the plant growth for the climate conditions of winter in Zagazig.

Greenhouse; Desalination; HDH; Solar Energy.

Hassan El-Banna Saad Fath is a well-known regional expert in desalination and energy technologies. Prof. Fath received his B.Sc. (Top of Class) and M.Sc. from Alexandria University (Egypt) and his M. Eng. and Ph.D. from McMaster University (Canada). He has wide academic and industrial  experience in desalination and energy technologies. His academic experience was in different Middle East universities including:

  • Professor, Japan University of Science and Technology (E-JUST), Egypt
  • Professor and Distinguished Scientist, Alexandria University (AU), Egypt
  • Visiting Professor, American University of Sharjah (AUS), UAE
  • Professor of Practice, Masdar Institute of Science and Technology (MIST), UAE
  • Associate Professor, King Abdul Aziz University, KSA and University of Technology, Iraq
  • Visiting Associate Professor, Qatar University (Qatar) and Arab University of

Beirut (Lebanon)

Prof. Hassan El-Banna supervised over 40 M.Sc. and Ph.D. thesis and has coestablishing different desalination laboratories, e-learning institute, water and energy associations and centers. He has led (as PI, Co-PI, consultant, and WP leader) over 20 RDI-funded projects including mega projects. He was a coauthor of Encyclopedia of Desalination and Water Reuse (DESWARE), filed five patents, and published over 180 papers in desalination and energy technologies in international journals and conferences.

Google Scholar https://scholar.google.com.eg/citations?user=M-jI_nUAAAAJ& hl=en

Scopus Scholar https://www.scopus.com/authid/detail.uri?authorId=7004187101 ResearchGate Profile https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Hassan_Fath

 

His indumstrial experience includes:

  • Senior Researcher and Leader of New Thermal Desalination Processes, Doosan Heavy Industries (Korea), Water R&D Center (UAE)
  • Senior Engineer and Head of Efficiency and Statistics Department, Saline Water Conversion Corporation—SWCC (KSA)
  • Head of Engineering/Technical Training Department, Saudi Arabian Marketing and Refining Co. (SAMAREC)/Consolidated Electricity Company—SCECO-W (KSA)
  • Process Engineer, Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), Ontario Hydro (Canada)

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Article Title:
Future of Hydrogen and a Zero-Emissions Energy Market.
Author(s): Daniel Santoyo and Elizabeth Kocs.

This paper explores the role of hydrogen in achieving zero-carbon emissions. Current markets show an increasing demand for hydrogen fuel and government mandates are helping drive demand for hydrogen fuel. Most hydrogen fuel is being produced using fossil fuels (gray hydrogen) because it is currently the most economically feasible method. Green hydrogen produced by electrolysis is the long-term solution for zero-carbon hydrogen fuel production, but it may not be cost-competitive with gray hydrogen for some time. Increased investment in blue hydrogen (fossil fuels with carbon capture, utilization, and storage) is the short-term solution to nurture the growth of the hydrogen market.

Hydrogen, hydrogen production, electrolysis, hydrogen markets, hydrogen market drivers, zero emissions..

Daniel Santoyo is an early career engineering professional with experience in mechanical systems, and energy services, equipment, and markets. As a Sustainability Intern during Summer 2019, Mr. Santoyo provided engineering and data analysis support for utility and water metering and equipment projects at UIC Utilities & Energy Services. Most recently, Mr. Santoyo served as Lead Fellow for the UIC Energy Initiative, where he provided research and analytic support for energy content and market research projects, and organized a series of symposia to highlight diversity and excellence in energy and sustainability research and work across different disciplines. Daniel Santoyo graduated cum laude with a Bachelor of Science in Mechanical Engineering from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC).

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Article Title:
Efficient Polystyrene Insulated Mini-Passive Solar Still from Enhanced Water-Glass Evaporative Heat Transfer Coefficient.
Author(s): Hisham Maddah.

Solar still is a promising alternative to current desalination technologies owing to its inexpensive design and operation. However, loss of absorbed solar radiation (heat loss) from the water basin remains a challenge that needs to be addressed for highly efficient solar stills. Herein, we designed a polystyrene insulated mini-passive solar still (single-slope) capable of achieving high performance >18% for brackish water treatment at low flowrates. The improved efficiency is attributed to the enhanced water-glass evaporative heat transfer coefficients, with pronounced impact at minimum flowrates (30 mL/day). The experiments are conducted in Los Angeles during the March-April months. Theoretical models and experiments are utilized to determine water-glass convective (hcwg), evaporative (hewg), and radiative (hrwg) heat transfer coefficients when using different feed flowrates. This allows us to determine the optimal flowrate as well as the maximum achievable efficiency. Results showed that decreasing feed flowrates improves the still performance owing to the high water-glass temperature (Tw−Tg) difference. Also, slight increases are observed in the convective and radiative coefficients with a noticeable increase in the hewg at low flowrates. The lowest feed scenario of 30 mL/day achieved maximum efficiency since it has the highest hewg accelerating water evaporation.

Heat transfer, Insulation, Solar Energy, Water Distillation.

Hisham Maddah is an independent researcher and a faculty member working with the Chemical Engineering Department at King Abdulaziz University (KAU) in Rabigh. He has completed his MS and BS in Chemical Engineering from the University of Southern California in 2017 and KAU in 2012, respectively. Mr. Maddah has been awarded a full scholarship and is expected to earn his PhD in “Naturally-Sensitized Photoanodes for Molecular Photovoltaics” from the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC) by Summer 2020, aged 30. Mr. Maddah is an expert in organic-inorganic dye-sensitized solar cells for solar energy harvesting. His research interests include mini-passive solar stills, membrane separation, capacitive deionization, and activated carbons for water treatment. Mr. Maddah and his lab members are also experienced in the synthesis of low-dimensional semiconductors, fabrication of heterojunction diodes, utilization of natural sensitizers, Ti-based perovskites, and graphene for cost-effective and environmental-friendly energy harvesting applications. Mr. Maddah has published more than forty articles in reputed international peer-reviewed journals and conferences; arranged five outreach activities on third-generation solar cells.

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Article Title:
Effect of Integrating Graphite as Nanoparticles in Sensible Heat Storage Material on Performances of Solar Still .
Author(s): Hajar Hafs, Mohamed Asbik, Hassan Boushaba, Abdelghani Koukouch, Omar Ansari and Bah Abdellah.

In recent years, several research studies were conducted to enhance the productivity of solar desalination systems. One of the approaches was the integration of graphite nanoparticles in sensible storage material which is helpful for thermal conductivity enhancement.
In the present work, the numerical investigation of hybrid storage materials has been used to improve the thermal properties of solar still as well as improve the productivity. The hybrid storage materials form a mixture between graphite nanoparticles and sand as a sensible heat storage medium. To analyze their heat storage characteristics a finite element mathematical model has been developed using COMSOL Multiphysics.
The results showed that the thermal conductivity coefficient of the hybrid storage materials increases with increasing the graphite nanoparticles mass concentrations. Also, the percentage improvement depends especially on the mass concentration..

Solar still, Hybrid storage material , Nanoparticles, Comsol Multiphysics.

Hajar Hafs is a PhD student in Energy Engineering and Environment Department -Team in Thermal and Energy at ENSET school in University Mohamed V of Rabat. Her current research is concerned with solar still technologies integrated with different storage materials and external sources. She has worked extensively in the thermal engineering, energetic efficiency and solar cells, the primary research interest focused on developing a CFD model of a solar desalination system coupled with parabolic trough collector (PTC). She has also worked on developing theoretically and experimentally solar stills performances by integration different storage materials and nanoparticles. She has published a lot of articles in this field..

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Article Title:
Comparative Study on the Hygrothermal Performance between Bamboo and Timber Exterior Walls under Typical Climate Conditions of China.
Author(s): Zujian Huang.

As a country with rich bamboo forest resources and advanced bamboo processing technology, China is promoting the strategy of ‘substitute timber with bamboo’ in building industry. For clarifying the differences of heat and moisture process between bamboo and timber exterior walls, and the law of these differences with consideration to typical climate conditions of China, the study set bamboo exterior walls units as evaluation models, and accordingly timber units with the same construction size as benchmark models. With material properties parameters tested by experiments and climate data of the Chinese representative cities taken from the Meteonorm platform, comparison model groups are constructed in the WUFI Plus for annual dynamic coupled heat and moisture process simulation. Results shows that the higher heat storage and transport properties, as well as lower moisture storage and transport properties of bamboo compared with timber on the material level, have also showed on the building component level. Overall, bamboo exterior walls units have stronger heat and weaker moisture exchange with both outdoor and indoor air, and keep more stable temperature and moisture content of the construction layers. Further statistical analysis based on the large number simulation  results show that the comparison results between bamboo and timber groups are significantly affected by the exterior climate condition, as well as the construction type. And the moisture process shows more unpredictable features compared with the heat process. The study  ould provide reference for the ‘substitute timber with bamboo’ in practical application, in terms of the construction durability, indoor comfort and energy saving.

Bamboo, Timber, Exterior wall, Hygrothermal performance, Heat and moisture process, Climate condition..

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Article Title:
Projection of Greenhouse Gas Emissions and Air Pollutants from Waste Sector.
Author(s): Cevat Yaman and Ayse Burcu Yaman.

In this paper, we perform a study investigating waste sector greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results of this study are based on the waste generated in Kocaeli city (Turkey) with a population of approximately 2 million and a daily municipal solid waste (MSW) amount of about 1 kg per person. This study calculates GHG emission results from using energy in all municipal solid waste management steps in the study area. GHG emissions were calculated based on:1- recycling a fraction of materials at material recovery facility (MRF), 2- from collecting and transporting the waste to an existing landfill, and 3- from disposing of the waste in the landfill with landfill gas recovery process. Total GHG emissions from these 3 steps were determined as -224,163 ton CO2e for the year 2018. This study will guide the local authorities to take into account the GHG emissions in the study region if a long term waste management plans need to be considered.

Greenhouse gas, short-lived climate pollutants, waste management, green energy, greenhouse gas model, climate change.

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Article Title:
Statistical analysis and curve fit techniques to obtain estimator model of wave power for electricity generation.
Author(s): Jose Rafael Guzman-Sepulveda, Xiomara Gonzalez Ramirez, Ivan Hernandez-Robles, Jose Merced Lozano-Garcia and Rafael Guzman-Cabrera.

The depletion of the traditional energy resources and the awareness of their associated detrimental environmental impact, including global warming, have drawn attention to exploring other possibilities. In this regard, ocean sources have gained worldwide importance in the last decades as attractive alternatives for sustainable energy extraction. This alternative has great potential, especially for electricity generation, considering that nearly 40% of the world population lives near the coasts. In particular, for Mexico, having a coastline of more than eleven thousand kilometers makes it imperative to consider seriously this renewable.
Studying wave potential at coastal points involves a large number of parameters and degrees of freedom of ocean wave motion, which greatly complicates estimating energy potentials. In this work, we focus on the mathematical modeling of the two more relevant parameters that allow for realistic estimates: the wave’s significant height and its periodicity. Specifically, based on these relevant parameters, one can estimate the electrical power that can be extracted from a vertical electric power generator.
Our mathematical modeling approach relies on fitting the data from oceanographic buoys databases at two coastal nodes. Both stations belong to the National Data Buoy Center, and are located in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, respectively. The data analyzed comprise a history of 11 years, from 2005 to 2015, of measurements performed hourly at those locations. We find some periodic features at well defined frequencies in the data series, which persist even if the data is sub-sampled. This suggests that models in series forms, preferably periodic, could be adequate to describe the data. We use different nonlinear fitting models, and a provide a comprehensive comparison between them. We analyze in detail their range of validity in terms of the period and temporal resolution that such models can describe properly highlighting their advantages and drawbacks. Our results allow assessing the viability of using vertical electric generators based on the realistic estimates obtained from the modeling. Nevertheless, the modeling presented here can also be extended to other applications such as the estimation of return periods and the determination of water levels, which are critical for the design and engineering of oceanic strcutures. Overall, this work allows advancing the knowledge for the estimation of ocean wave energy potential and can be useful for future design of distributed generation plants based on this renewable alternative.

Distributed generation, energy conversion, wave energy conversion..

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Article Title:
Opportunities and challenges for decarbonizing steel production by creating markets for ‘green steel’ products.
Author(s): Hasan Muslemani, Xi Liang, Kathi Kaesehage, Francisco Ascui and Jeffrey Wilson.

The creation of a market for lower-carbon steel products, here called ‘green steel’, has been identified as an important means to support the introduction of breakthrough emission reduction technologies into the steel sector. However, the definition of what ‘green’ entails in the context of steel production, the implications on the competitiveness of green steel products in local and international markets, and the necessary market mechanisms to support their successful market penetration have not yet been explored. This paper addresses this gap by holding semi-structured interviews with international sustainability experts and commercial managers from leading steel trade  ssociations, research institutes and steelmakers. Our findings show that there is an urgent need to establish a set of standards to define what ‘greenness’ means in the steelmaking context; standards that avoid market disruptions, unintended consequences, and opportunities for greenwashing. We also highlight that the introduction of green steel products will have implications on product competitiveness on three different levels: 1) between primary and secondary steelmaking routes, 2) with traditional, lesser green steel, and 3) with other substitutable materials (e.g. cement and plastics). This paper emphasises the need for steelmakers to adopt a transitional approach in deploying different low-carbon technologies, based on their stage of technological maturity, applicability in certain country contexts, capacity to reduce emissions over time, and the ability of the investment community to support their deployment. We further identify market mechanisms to support green steel production, including carbon border adjustments and public procurement, highlighting a need for implementing a combination of complementary policies to ensure the products’ roll-out. The study further shows that the auto industry is a likely candidate for green steel consumption, where a market would be supported by price premiums paid by willing consumers, such as those of high-end luxury vehicles.

Green steel, decarbonisation, business model innovation, market analysis.

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Article Title:
Preparation of Activated Carbon from Agricultural Wastes for Smoke Filter System.
Author(s): Norli Umar Umar, Nor Kartini Abu Bakar and Cheng Sit Foon.

This article describes the preparation of activated carbon (AC) from agricultural waste for application as combustion smoke filter system. Industrial agricultural waste creates environmental problem especially from its abundance solid waste. Turning these wastes into wealth is one of the options to solve this problem. This leads to the aim of this study which is to prepare activated carbon using two different starting materials: coconut shell (CS) and palm kernel shell (PKS). In addition to this, a comparative study to investigate the most suitable biomass as smoke filter is conducted as well. Starting material properties were identified by proximal (moisture, ash and volatile matter content) and ultimate analysis (CHNS). Lignocellulosic background of lignin, hemicellulose, cellulose and extractives composition was determined. Preparation of AC involves two-step: carbonisation and activation process. Carbonisation temperature of CS was set at 600°C and PKS at 650°C. Activation using potassium hydroxide (KOH) at ration of 1:1 (w/w) followed by microwave radiation for 10 minutes at a power input of 1000W. Fourier – Transform Infra-Red (FTIR) analysis and percentage yield of preparation were identified. In order to study the morphology of produced AC, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FESEM) images were obtained, and iodine value (IV) was calculated to study the adsorption capacity. Since adsorption of smoke combustion require meso to nano pores, is recommended that coconut shell is the most suitable agricultural waste to be applied as smoke filter..

activated carbon, agricultural waste, coconut, palm.

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Article Title:
Combustion Synthesis of Catalysts for Hydrogen and Syn Gas Production from Methane Dry Reforming.
Author(s): Anand Kumar.

Methane dry reforming reaction (MDR: CH4 + CO2 = 2H2 + 2CO) utilizes two of the greenhouse gases to produce hydrogen and synthesis gas (syngas). It an endothermic reaction that takes place at higher temperature under severe conditions known for coke formation. Catalysts under these conditions tend to deactivate quickly due to carbon deposition on the surface of catalyst. Herein, the recent development in catalysts for MDR, particularly over the last decade, is planned to be discussed. An overview of the reaction conditions, noble and transition metal based catalysts, oxide-supports and strategies for suppressing side reactions and improving the long term stability of the catalyst are also planned to be discussed. Certain techniques for catalyst synthesis, such as combustion based techniques, have shown good potential for encapsulation of smaller active sites in the support structure, leading to low coking and long term stability. Examples related nickel based supported catalyst using advanced synthesis techniques are planned to be discussed as well.
Combustion based techniques have shown great potential for catalyst preparation, leading to high surface area, improved dispersion of active sites and enhanced metal-support interation. Nickel based catalysts on fumed silica support are planned to be discussed for methane dry reforming reaction, along with carbon dioxide hydrogenation reaction leading to syn-gas productions. The catalysts were characterized before and after the reaction to understand the impact of reaction conditions on the structural properties. A detailed analysis of reaction pathway on Ni/SiO2 catalyst is also planned to be presented where the reaction intermediates were identified using in-situ DIRFTS analysis in presence of reactive gases as a fuction of temperature.

Methane dry reforming, Hydrogen production, Syngas production, Supported catalysts.

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Article Title:
Catalyst Development for Water Oxidation and CO2 Reduction.
Author(s): Anand Kumar.

The future of the world energy lies in clean and renewable energy sources. Many technologies, such as solar cells, wind turbines, etc., have been developed to harness renewable energies in different forms of fuel. Amongst them, electrolysis of water to produce hydrogen and oxygen is one of the most important development towards achieving clean energy, which has attained a significant attention due to its green and simple method for the production of fuels. In electrolysis of water, the half-reaction containing the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) is a kinetically sluggish reaction, which requires higher overpotential to produce O2, when compared to the other half-reaction, i.e. hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). Many electrocatalysts are studied extensively to be used in the OER process to get an economical yield out of it. Noble metal-based catalysts are the state of the art catalyst used for OER currently. But due to their high cost and scarcity, they cannot be applied in a large-scale manner to be used in future. The non-noble metals (transition metals and perovskites) are gaining interest by exhibiting on par or better OER performance compared to the noble metal used. Due to their low cost, ample resources and a number of metals available, they have opened up a variety of areas with a different combination of metals to be used as a catalyst for OER. Amongst these metals, cobalt has received massive appreciation for performing as an excellent OER catalyst. Multimetals, multimetal mixed oxides, multimetal phosphides, perovskites, and carbon-supported catalysts containing cobalt have shown low overpotential with high long term stability. Herein, recent progress on different cobalt-based electrocatalysts for OER, the general mechanism governing the OER process are planned to be discussed.
In addion to clean energy, presence of CO2 is another critical challenge for sustainable development. An effective approach to reduce industrial CO2 emission could be it’s direct reduction at the source of emission. Herein, I plan to discuss the novel strategies adopted for synthesizing nanostructures of metallic and bimetallic catalysts and their performance for electrocatalytic reduction of CO2. Some selected catalysts are also evaluated for thermal catalysis to compare the differences in activity and the nature of product when two different platforms are used. Catalysts are primarily composed of transition metals and their alloys (Cu, Ni, Zn, Co etc. and alloys with Ag). Combustion synthesis, hydrothermal techniques and galvanic exchange methods were adopted to fine-tune the surface and structure of the catalysts. Some selected catalysts, e.g. Ni, Cu and Ag, were also deposited on fumed silica and calcined at high temperature to obtain supported catalysts for thermal-catalytic reduction of CO2. Electrocatalytic results indicate selectivity towards formic acid, and formate species; whereas thermal catalytic results show a greater tendency towards methane and CO formation. All the catalysts were characterized in detail using XRD, XPS, SEM/TEM before and after the reaction to understand the structural changes owing to the reaction. Reaction pathway studies were also performed by using in-situ FTIR studies in DRIFTS mode to monitor the reaction intermediates with temperature..

Water splitting, Hydrogen production, Carbon dioxide reduction, Supported catalysts, Electrocatalysis.

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Article Title:
Increasing the efficiency of the Intermediate band photovoltaic cells using ZnS/CdSe or Si/SixGe1-x quantum dots.
Author(s): Asmae El Aouami, El Mustapha Feddi, Mohamed El-Yadri and Mimoun Zazoui.

Photovoltaic cells based on the implementation of quantum dots in the intrinsic region, so-called intermediate band solar cells (IBSC), are among the most widely used concepts nowadays for achieving high solar conversion efficiency. However, there is still a need for optimizing many parameters related to the solar cells, such as the size of quantum dots, the inter-dot distance, and also choosing the right material. Yet to date, none of the materials could deliver the high efficiencies as expected from the high limits of IBSCs. Although conceptually simple, the challenge is to find the proper material, which has the desired intermediate band and how to controllably build IBs in the intrinsic band gaps of candidate materials. The main objective of this study is to extend the current knowledge of IBSC. Thus, we analyze the effect of ZnS/CdSe and Si/SixGe(1-x) quantum dot materialson the characteristics of multiple quantum dot solar cells by considering the Schrödinger equation within the effective mass approximation.

Solar cells, Photovoltaic, Quantum dots materials, Intermediate band, Conversion efficiency.

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Article Title:
A systemic decision support approach for biomass energy assessment, storage and delivery.
Author(s): Nadeem Alkurdi, Benjamin Pillot, Carmen Gervet and Laurent Linguet.

Biomass plays a significant role, compared to other energy resources to enhance grid stability. It is a non-intermittent renewable energy suitable for electricity production, that contributes to reducing the Greenhouse Gases (GHG) emissions, but also requires a logistical approach to carry the resource to its conversion and distribution site. In this paper, we present an integrated approach that identifies biomass energy potentials from spatiotemporal data analysis, derives energy planning scenarios of potential biomass plants (location, size, costs, connection to the network), and integrates in the decision process the constraints that specify the supply chain and logistics dimensions of transporting this energy resource. This holistic approach uses heterogeneous data for potential assessment, electricity demands, and constraints (networks, roads, costs). It is modelled in two steps: a GIS approach that extracts and analysis that derives potential sites of biomass with their characteristics, and a Robust optimization (RO) module that seeks the optimal sites and sizes to satisfy forecast energy demands and minimizes costs, including the satisfaction and multiple resource, cost, storage and logistical constraints, and trajectory along the road network and their associated costs and CO2 emissions. It is implemented using the GREECE framework developed initially to tackle a solar park planning problem, and extended here to a non-intermittent resource. We apply the approach to solve a realistic strategy of complete biomass energy planning in French Guiana. The results show that the scenarios are more cost effective when the sites selection are handled hand in hand with the transportation and logistic dimensions in this multi-criteria GIS and optimization problem.

Energy transition; GIS; Biomass energy planning; Robust scenarios; Technical risk.

Nadeem AL Kurdi

I was born in Tyre, Lebanon, in 1992.  I obtained a Diplome in Mechanical Engineering from the Lebanese University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut, Lebanon and also obtained my Master degree (M2) of Renewable Energy of Science and technology from Ecole Polytechnique de Paris, France. I am currently a PhD student at the University of French Guiana, UMR ESPACE-DEV, IRD, Montpellier, France where my main research activities focused on renewable energy transition, decision-making, energy planning strategy, energy modeling and optimization.

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Article Title:
CFD Simulation of Particle Deposition Efficiency in a 90° Turbulent Bend Pipe Flow in Presence of Coiled Wire Inserts.
Author(s): Fatima Zahrae Erraghroughi, Anas El Maakoul, Abdellah Bah and Abdellatif Ben Abdellah.

The deposition of aerosols in curved pipes is a prevalent process in many engineering and industrial applications. In this study, the Eulerian-Lagrangian method was used to investigate deposition efficiency in a 90° bend pipe with coiled wire inserts. The simulation was performed in ANSYS Fluent©, turbulent flow was modeled by solving Reynolds Navier-stokes (RANS) equations and the deposition process was simulated based on the discrete phase model (DPM). Particle deposition behavior at different particle Stokes number was investigated and validated against an experimental study from literature. The effect of wire high and coil pitch were evaluated to explore their influence on deposition efficiency.

Turbulent bend flow, DPM model, Deposition efficiency, coiled wire inserts..

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Article Title:
Synthesis and characterization of encapsulated capric-stearic acid with titanium dioxide for thermal energy storage.
Author(s): Ghada Ben Hamad, Zohir Younsi, Fabien Salaün and Hassane Naji.

In this study, the synthesis of encapsulated eutectic mixture of capric-stearic acid with titanium dioxide as a shell was realized by Sol-Gel method. The encapsulation with inorganic shell as titanium dioxide decrease the evaporation and diffusion rates of phase change materials and reduce the reactivity toward the environment. The chemical structure and the morphology of the resulting materials were determined by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and the thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) were used to investigate the thermal properties and stability. The encapsulated eutectic mixture exhibit an interesting spherical morphology with a large latent heat. DSC analysis shows that the melting and freezing temperatures of encapsulated eutectic mixture are respectively 22.7 °C and 19 °C. Besides, the protective shell gives an excellent structural stability to the active core. Based on all the results, the encapsulated fatty acids with titanium dioxide as a shell are a potential candidate for several applications like solar thermal energy storage, intelligent textile and building energy conservation.

Solar energy storage, microencapsulated phase change materials, Fatty acids eutectic mixture, sol-gel method.

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Article Title:
Performance evaluation of a double pipe heat exchanger with modified fins in a rotating tube.
Author(s): Kawtar Feddi, Anas El Maakoul, Abdellatif Ben Abdellah and Fatima Zahrae Erraghroughi.

Heat exchangers have a very wide range of utilization in different engineering processes and research fronts. They are frequently used as components in lots of industries such as waste heat recovery, conversion systems and cooling applications. In this work, the thermo-fluid performance of a proposed design of a double pipe heat exchanger (DPHX) with modified longitudinal fins on the annulus side and with a rotating tube, is numerically studied for various configurations. Three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations will be performed in order to investigate the fluid flow, heat transfer, and pressure drop for different configurations of the DPHX. The numerical model is first verified against experimental data available in the literature, for a DPHX with a rotating non-finned tube and for static conventional longitudinal fins. Then, a comparative analysis of the thermo-fluid performance between the rotating configuration for a range of rotational speed values and the reference static longitudinal fins configuration is conducted. Key design parameters such as the heat transfer rate, power consumption, and thermal performance enhancement factor are evaluated to predict the overall enhancement and performance of the heat exchanger

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Article Title:
A framework for UAV Charging Infrastructure.
Author(s): June Tay and Yihong He.

In recent years, there is a proliferation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) used in transportation and leisure, apart from inspection and maintenance of the infrastructure and the environment. Looking at goods transportation, we can narrow down to a few key categories: parcel deliveries (first and last mile), deliveries of medical goods and cargo deliveries. The use of UAVs can help to overcome some obstacles in logistics such as challenging geographical areas (such as on ships out at the sea and dense urban areas with limited space), lack of road infrastructure, time constraints situations (such as medical emergency), unsafe environment (e.g. natural disaster, pandemics) and energy usage issues (such as less environmental friendly).
In order to sustain longer flight duration, there should be a more effective way to improve the traffic system infrastructure by providing UAV charging stations and landing pads. With more players in the UAV air-delivery services, it may be hard for individual companies to achieve high utilization rates since the turnaround times between  landing and take-off can be high. In addition to that, it may be  ometimes be difficult to convince consumers who are willing to pay for such delivery for specific business at certain times and these companies may consider leasing out their UAVs for other businesses’ usage. In this paper, we propose a framework that allows the charging station and landing pads to cater to different companies offering air-delivery of parcels and cargoes. The UAV stations can provide a live updates on the cost of UAV charging and the number of UAVs charging they can support for each category of UAV available. This paper proposes a study on the optimal selection of a UAV charging station. The cost of charging which is based on dynamic pricing, the availability of charging for specific UAV, the distance from the UAV to the station, number of charging points required for use before reaching destination and the amount of waiting time needed are the concerns for the UAV charging station selection and we evaluate the selection based on a weighted model as well as a stochastic model. A basic model of the charging infrastructure is developed using Java for this project.
Companies with under-utilised or spare UAVs can use this traffic system infrastructure to advertise their services for either the leasing of the whole UAV for a certain duration or piggy-back payload on their under-utilised servicing UAVs. Using the size of the payload, the distance traverse, the amount of charging required and the cost of charging, the cost model for the provision of UAV services by companies is evaluated.

UAV, Drone, Air-Delivery, UAV Charging Station.

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Article Title:
Impact of the variation of the thermal conductivity of the insulation material on the heat transfer through a building envelope.
Author(s): Maatouk Khoukhi and Shaimaa Abdelbaqi.

The space cooling/heating load calculation requires a detailed and accurate evaluation of the heat transfer through the envelope components of the building. This depends mainly on the accuracy of the overall heat transfer coefficient which is calculated based on the values of the thermal resistance of the different building envelope components, particularly the insulation materials. Indeed, the accuracy of the thermal conductivity (k) of the insulation material, which describes the ability of heat to flow across the material in the presence of a temperature gradient, has a significant effect on the heat exchange between the building interior and the ambiance. In practice, the k-value is calculated under specific laboratory conditions at 24°C, according to relevant ASTM standards. Actually this is not true due to the significant variations in the external conditions, including the outdoor temperature, solar radiation, and air moisture content. In addition, the thermal resistance of most thermal insulation materials depends on the operating temperature, the location of the insulation layer within the assembly system, and the effective temperature. Indeed, empirical evidence shows that the change in the polystyrene insulation thermal conductivity with temperature at the mid-thickness of the insulation material during the daytime can be very significant. At high temperatures, in the order of 100°C, commonly encountered in the roof insulations of buildings in hot-humid climates, the percentage increase of k-values relative to k24 for wall and roof can be as high as 9.4% and 20%, respectively. This change affects the cooling load calculation when operating at temperatures exceeding 24°C. The first part of this article evaluates the effect of changes in the conductivity of polystyrene insulation material, as a function of the operating temperature, on the cooling load calculation required by the building, and thus the sizing of the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning equipment. The second part of this paper examines the change of the temperature through a typical wall assembly comprising a polystyrene insulation material (EPS) with constant and variable thermal conductivity. Four levels of the insulation density, namely, low density (LD), high density (HD), super high density (SHD), and ultra-high density (UHD) impeded at three different locations within the wall have been considered in this study. During the day, the evolution of temperatures through the wall section was observed on inner wall surface when EPS is located at different positions of the wall section. Thereafter, the thermal performance across the wall section incorporating insulation layers at different positions applying variable k-value was compared to a non-variable thermal conductivity case by quantifying the net heat reduction due to the k-relationship with time. As a result obtained, the change of the temperature through the wall with variable k is higher compared to the case of constant k. The temperature change on the inner wall surface with constant and variable k is shown to decrease as the position of the insulation material is located toward the inner wall surface. Therefore, locating the insulation material in the middle of the wall assembly will provide the best dynamic thermal performance.

Polystyrene insulation, thermal conductivity, operating temperature, cooling load, dynamic thermal change, variable thermal conductivity, different wall positions.

I earned my doctorate in Mechanical Engineering from Tohoku University-Japan in collaboration with New South Wales University-Australia. My research interests cover mainly three interrelated areas of renewable energy, bio-insulation materials, and building energy systems. Most of my publications come out from research development work performed for well-known international companies, organizations, and universities. I have a long record of academic and industrial experience and I have been actively involved in several research projects supported by several grants from Samsung, NEDO, and universities’ internal and external grants. The total budget of my projects exceeds 5 Million USD. I have published more than 100 journal and conference papers and I am a reviewer for several journals in my field of specialization.

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Article Title:
Characterization of liquefaction Nutshell: SEM analysis.
Author(s): figen gündüz, mikail olam, cemil koyunoğlu, hüseyin karaca.

Excess carbon inputs from the use of fossil sources are high compared to the current carbon cycle. This excess causes global warming like socio-economic problems, catastrophic global issues. Besides renewable energy options (such as tide, solar and geothermal energy), the use of biomass resources for heat and electricity production is another option. Due to the excess carbon, it revealed concepts such as socio-economic carbon metabolism and carbon dependence. In the experimental studies, seven different experiments tried. In the parameters, nutshell chars produced in a semi-continuous autoclave, with 1 hour reaction time, under inert environment, and non-catalytic conditions. Reaction temperature tried between 350 and 410, gradually increasing with 20 oC for each trial. Besides, particle size increased from 0,25 mm to 1,5 mm. As an SEM analysis results, the photograph was taken under the size of each char samples from 2 μm to 100 μm resolution.

Biomass liquefaction, Nutshell, SEM analysis, Particle size, Reaction temperature.

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Article Title:
Optimization of process parameters for Nutshell liquefaction: Total conversion, Oil+gas yield approach.
Author(s): figen gündüz, mikail olam, cemil koyunoğlu, hüseyin karaca.

Unlike traditional biofuels, new generation biofuels are produced from lignocellulosic biomass such as wood waste and straw. In liquefaction, cellulose structure turns into bio-oil by hydrogen transfer to the structure under high temperature and pressure. The produced bio-oil offers sustainable solutions for the production of chemicals both as a new generation biofuel alternative to oil and as a by-product. In the experimental studies, seven different experiments tried. In the parameters, nutshell liquefaction conducted in a semi-continuous autoclave, with 1 hour reaction time, under inert environment, and non-catalytic conditions. Reaction temperature tried between 350 oC and 410 oC, gradually increasing with 20 oC for each trial. Besides, particle size increased from 0,25 mm to 1,5 mm. According to total conversion and oil+gas yields, comparing experiments 3 and 2, they have nearly the same conversion and yields, due to the highest values and particle sizes. Number 3 tries to have economic advantages than number 2 tries. After the experiments, Experiment 3, which has the highest particle sizes selected as the best option among the seven experiments trial.

Biomass liquefaction, Nutshell, Total conversion, Oil+gas yields, Particle size.

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Article Title:
Characterization of activated carbon produced from The chars Obtained from Polyethylene Terephthalate Pyrolysis: X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) approach.
Author(s): figen gündüz, mikail olam, cemil koyunoğlu, hüseyin karaca.

Activated carbon is widely used in systems such as the separation of noxious chemicals from wastewater. Its advantages over activated carbon used as granules can be listed as follows. The powdered activated carbon cost is lower than the granular carbon used in the filtration columns. Compared to the ratio of active surface area per equivalent mass, powdered activated carbon granule has a more active surface area than activated carbon. The powder used in the treatment technology interacts with activated carbon wastewater more effectively than granular carbon, and the required dose can be easily changed according to the discharge requirement. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a batch reactor under non-catalytic conditions, the reaction time of 15-90 minutes, reaction temperature of 325-425 °C, solid/solvent ratio of 1/4, and initial nitrogen gas of 20 bar. Residues collected in a vessel obtained from pyrolysis experiments under reaction time of 15-90 min, reaction temperature of 325-425 °C, and non-catalytic conditions. The resulting residues were milled to micron dimensions. It was made in the muffle furnace at 400 °C and 30 minutes under nitrogen conditions. The residue obtained from polyethylene terephthalate pyrolysis contains about 60% Carbon (C), 4% Hydrogen (H), and 36% Oxygen (O) in the elemental analysis. According to the XRD results of the chars obtained as a result of the pyrolysis of polyethylene terephthalate samples, it was seen that the chars formed terephthalic acid (C8H6O4) in crystal form..

Polyethylene Terephthalate pyrolysis, Activated carbon, Char re-using, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.

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Article Title:
Characterization of activated carbon produced from The chars Obtained from Polyethylene Terephthalate Pyrolysis: Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) approaches.
Author(s): figen gündüz, mikail olam, cemil koyunoğlu, hüseyin karaca.

Activated carbons produced from biomass are preferred as industrial pollutants because they have high surface activity, high surface area, and highly porous materials with mechanical strength. In particular, the use of agricultural wastes as raw materials for activated carbon production is studied extensively. It has been used as an anti-pollution material to control the adsorbent properties of the activated carbon produced from agricultural waste, especially pollutant gases in the industry. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out in a batch reactor under non-catalytic conditions, the reaction time of 15-90 minutes, reaction temperature of 325-425 °C, solid/solvent ratio of 1/4, and initial nitrogen gas of 20 bar. Residues collected in a vessel obtained from pyrolysis experiments under reaction time of 15-90 min, reaction temperature of 325-425 °C, and non-catalytic conditions. The resulting residues were milled to micron dimensions. It was made in the muffle furnace at 400 °C and 30 minutes under nitrogen conditions. The residue obtained from polyethylene terephthalate pyrolysis contains about 60% Carbon (C), 4% Hydrogen (H), and 36% Oxygen (O) in the elemental analysis. According to the resulting SEM and BET, the PET residues are candidates a good for active carbon production..

Polyethylene Terephthalate pyrolysis, Activated carbon, Char re-using, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis.

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Article Title:
COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL VS. ALBANIAN UNDERUSED INDUSTRIAL SITES REGENERATION.
Author(s): Boriana Vrusho and Frida Pashako.

Industrial patrimony is one of the most important, but sometimes under-evaluated, assets of our heritage. Most of nowadays industrial sites are consequence of industrialization process. Due to post-war developments and changes of economic policies, a large number of industrial sites have been reused for cultural, educational, residential or economical purposes.
The industrialization process in Albania started at the XIX century, but the greatest development happened during the communist period (1945-1990). Parallel to land privatization, the change of regime was followed by closure and harassment of innumerable sites and objects. For more than two decades, most of the largest industrial sites were out of function or partially privately used. With the approval of Albanian Local General Plans of cities, it has become a primary purpose the designation of land use and regeneration of these “silent assets” which now have the opportunity to become the promotors of cities developments.
Taking in consideration worldwide positive examples of underused industrial sites regeneration, this study provides a comparative analysis towards the Albanian case. The work was based on various on-site visits of local deteriorated industrial sites and further desk research (historic and literature review) regarding possible and successful approaches. Facing absent local experiences and the urge of overall regenerations evolving nowadays in country, this study gives contribution of possible regeneration instruments using most suitable positive worldwide experiences. Furthermore, this study provides very interesting documentation of Albanian industrial sites, which information is lacking in international level, hence contributing the promotion of this heritage in national and international level..

industrial heritage; industrial archaeology; underused site; sustainable development.

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Article Title:
Effect of Passive Solar Design Strategies on Indoor Thermal Comfort and Energy Conservation in High-rise Residential Buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
Author(s): Rudai Shan, Tiemao Shi and Yuan Fan.

The Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau has unique climate features with intense solar radiation, longer sunshine duration, lower air temperature and pressure, less cloud cover, and discernable seasonal and spatial inhomogeneity of precipitation. It has abundant solar energy resource but scarcity of conventional fossil energy resources. Also, since the local ecological enrvironment of Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau is very fragile according to the climate change and human activities, China and South Asia may face severe problem of future water supply reduction. Therefore, it is necessary to implement sustainable technology and develop renewable energy resouces, such as solar energy, to reduce the pollution and protect the fragile environment in this area. Passive solar design is one of the most suitable strategies to improve the indoor thermal environment as well as reducing energy consumption for new developed local residential building projects. However, it is often difficult to achieve the satisfactory indoor thermal environment in local passive solar high-rise residential buildings.
A systematic study of high-rise residential buildings in the city of Haidong in Qinghai province was conducted to improve the indoor thermal environment of passive solar buildings through building design. The basic parameters were investigated on the local climate, window placement and size, glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass, shading system and the indoor thermal environment. Moreover, the heat transfer coeffcient applied to the wall design are different for different orientations, according to the difference of solar radiation intensity in different orientations for areas with high solar radiation intensity. The general physical and mathematical analysis models of passive solar residential buildings were established based on the heat transfer theory. Furthermore, the effects of passive solar design strategies on indoor air temperature were analyzed by numerical simulation.
Results show that the indoor air temperature of the passive solar building is influenced by the appropriate design of window size, glazing type, thermal insulation, thermal mass and shading system. The indoor air temperature for bedrooms and livingroom can be largely increased by from 20% to 35% in wintertime, respectively. The annual heating energy demand can be reduced by over 70%. The result of this study can provide optimization reference for passive solar design strategies in local residential buildings..

passive solar design strategy; high-rise residential building; indoor thermal comfort; energy conservation; Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.

Dr. Rudai Shan is a leading researcher in the Sustainable R&D Department of Country Garden. She received her Master of Science in 2014 and PhD of Architecture in Building Technology in 2016, from the University of Michigan. She also taught and led research as an associate professor in Shenyang Jianzhu University. Her research focus on climate responsible design strategies in different climates, building simulation and optimization algorithms. She managed hundreds of successful green building projects in China.

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Article Title:
An affordable calibrated hot box suitable for thermal performance measurement of an insulation panel.
Author(s): Hasila Jarimi and Yixin Wang.

This paper presents a small affordable calibrated hot box built at the Department of Architecture and Built Environment, the University of Nottingham. Whilst no specific European Standards are available for the small calibrated hot box, at cost of approximately GBP 10,000 the design, development and utilisation of the hot box were performed by taking into account almost all the requirements outlined in the ISO 8990 standards.. The hot box comprises of three components namely; the metering box, the specimen panel and the cold box. The box is designed by taking into account the minimum requirement for the metering area according ISO 8990 (1m x 1m). In order to ensure uniform air circulation at the specified air speed requirement, a baffle with a series of 12 Vdc fans was installed in each of the cold and hot area. Additionally, the minimum number of temperature sensors per unit area in measuring the thermal transmittance of the tetsing specimen have also been considered. The thermal transimittance value of the tested specimen was measured using a heat flux sensor. Innovative heating and cooling elements were introduced in the design of the hot box using two separate units of thermoelectric (TEC) air to air heat pump, capable to achieve 3° C to 45° C in the cold and hot enclosure respectively. The TEC heat pump is controlled by a proportional–integral–derivative controller (PID controller) connected to a PC with a user interface. Meanwhile the speed of the installed fans were controlled via Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) controller. To calibrate the hot box, the thermal conductivity of four different materials measured using the heat flux sensor in the hot box, were compared with the thermal conductivity measured using a calibrated guarded heat flow meter of Thermtest HFM-100. From the analysis, the values measured by the hot box and the guarded heat flow meter are found to be in good agreement with the average standard deviation of the measured k-value by the hot box from the guarded heat flow meter is below 10%. This paper serves as a guidance document that outline the methodology in the design, and development, in the specimen testing using heat flux sensor in a calibrated hot box.

thermal performance; affordable; small; hot box.

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Article Title:
The novel high-performance potassium-ion capacitors using N-S doped carbon nanofibers anode with long cycle life.
Author(s): Indu Pandey .

Low cost, metal ion storage system with abundant resources and high working voltage is promising  candidate for current market demand based on energy storage devices. Recent energy storage technologies are focusing on the development of sustainable energy storage system. Here flexible potassium ion hybrid capacitor was developed using biomass derived N-S doped carbon nanofibers  as a promising anode material for K-ion storage through potassium alloy on the N-S doped carbon nanofiber anode and the fast capacitive behavior on the exfoliated graphite cathode. N-S doped carbon nanofibers based anode exhibits high electroactive aurface area and herarichal mesoporous structure. These N-S doped carbon nanofibers delivers high reversible capacity with good rate performance and cycling stability. Taking advantage of these features, a potassium-ion hybrid capacitor is constructed using N-S doped carbon nanofibers  as battery-type anode and 3-dimensional exfoliated graphite as capacitor-type cathode electrodes. The capacitor displays a high energy density of 87.5 W h/kg, a high power output of 3000 W/kg, as well as a long cycling life (95% capacity retention over 5100 cycles). Moreover, a gel polymer electrolyte with a 3D porous structure and high ionic conductivity was employed to improve the structural stability of the N-S doped carbon nanofibers anode, which not only realizes good flexibility but also achieves long cycling stability with a capacity retention of nearly 100% for 4500 cycles at a high current density of 2.0 A g–1. The excellent electrochemical performance is attributed to the fast kinetics, good structural flexibility, and small volume change (9.2%) of N-S doped carbon nanofibers upon potassium ion insertion/extraction, and its good compatibility with the positive electrode in gel electrolyte. This will promote application of flexible N-S doped carbon nanofibers in hybrid capacitors and the development of potassium ion capacitors. Thus, such an non aqueous flexible energy storage system can satisfy the requirements of high power and high energy densities simultaneously with sustainable applications at low-cost.

N-S doped carbon nanofibers, Exfoliated graphite, Potassium-ion capacitor, Energy density.

Indu Pandey is the Postdoctoral fellow at the Florida International University, Miami, USA. Her research area is centered to development of transformative electrochemical technologies that enable a sustainable energy economy. Her research approach is interdisciplinary as her research profile includes various fields chemical engineering, electrical engineering, materials science, nanotechnology, quantum chemistry, electrochemistry, mechanical engineering, to develop new flexible materials, processes, and devices harnessing electrochemical phenomena. Dr. Indu received her PhD in 2014 from Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi, India. Pandey has been the recipient of a number of awards including D.S. Kothari Post-doctoral fellowship, faculty recognition award, CSIR NET fellowship etc. She worked as a Post doc researcher in various premier Institutes in India (Delhi University, IIT Kanpur) and worked as an Associate Professor at VTU, Belagavi affiliated MVJ College of Engineering, Bengaluru. She has 26 publications and 1 patent, with a H index of 12 and over 240 citations.

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Article Title:
Tuning the optical band gap and magnetization of oleic acid coated CoFe2O4 NPs synthesized by facile hydrothermal route.
Author(s): Mohd Shkir, S. Alfaify and Kamlesh V. Chandekar.

The high-quality oleic acid coated cobalt ferrite (OCF) nanopowders were prepared by hydrothermal route at 60 °C, 120 °C and 180 °C temperatures. The average crystallite sizes of 5.2 ± 0.07 nm, 13.3 ± 0.19 nm and 18.9 ± 0.23 nm were evaluated for OCF-60, OCF-120 and OCF-180. The SEM images of OCF exhibits agglomerated nanoparticles of roughly spherical shape. Optical energy gap was estimated and found to be enhanced from 1.8 to 2.3 eV with decreasing particle size. The area ratio v2 A of phonon modes occurred at 447 and 600-613 cm-1 are correspond to octahedral and tetrahedral sites, respectively. The enhancement in saturation magnetization S M was observed from 44.64 to 76.66 (emu/g) owing to decrease in area ratio v2 A . Value of spin-spin correlation function was found to be decreased from 1.60 to 0.93 with increase in S M /size. A strong correlation between magnetic and optical properties with particle size was observed.

Optical band gap; Raman spectroscopy; Spin-phonon coupling; Spin-spin correlation function; Area ratio..

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Article Title:
A facile one-pot flash combustion synthesis of La@ZnO nanoparticles and their characterizations for optoelectronic and photocatalysis applications.
Author(s): Kamlesh V. Chandekar, Mohd. Shkir and S. Alfaify.

The successful one pot flash combustion synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) with a diverse LA (La@ZnO) content was achieved simply and economically. X-ray diffraction confirms the synthesis of ZnO with a hexagonal crystal system. The vibrational bands are positioned at 100, 332, 380, 438 and 583 cm-1 for pure and La@ZnO NPs. FESEM images exhibit roughly spherical and oval morphologies of pure ZnO with particles sized 120 nm and La@ZnO NPs with particle sizes in the 46–74 nm range. The particle size of a La doped ZnO sample increases with increase in concentration from 1.0 % to 7.5 wt.% of La. The evaluated energy gap of La doped ZnO NPs decreased from 3.220 to 3.210 eV as the concentration of La varied from 1.0 to 7.5 wt.% as estimated by Kubelka–Munk theory. The photocatalytic analysis of the as-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles is maximized at La (1.0 wt.%) and the mechanism of photocatalytic decolourization reaction is discussed. The results suggest that the La-doped ZnO nanoparticles can be used in optoelectronic and photocatalytic applications..

La@ZnO; Nanoparticles; X-ray diffraction; FE-SEM; optical properties; photocatalytic properties.

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Article Title:
Simulation of a reactor for biomass residues of banana and roses to obtain clean energy.
Author(s): Ariana Ojeda, Christian Gutiérrez and Carolina Montero.

In Ecuador, the waste generated in the agroindustry has not been valorized; the residues from banana grown are used to feed pigs, while that the tailings from the roses are useful in the manufacture of compost.
The alternative of using biomass as an energy resource will allow decrease environmental problems with the incorporation of renewable energy within industrial processes.
This work is focussed on a simulation of the reaction mechanisms and kinetic models of the process of devolatilization of banana rachis and rose stems in different types of reactors in the ASPEN PLUS® simulator.
The simulation of a reactor for waste biomass of rose and bananas at local conditions are established, to provide added value to waste used maximizing the obtaining of high potential by-products in the chemical and energetic area.
First, the schematic processes are identified, then the data of the process streams were entered: mass flow and composition of the biomass.
Some processes as a drying phase and the decomposition of biomass in different types of reactors, Gibbs, CSTR, PFR, Batch, and Stoichiometric are simulated.
Different operating conditions for the thermochemical pyrolysis process: temperature, biomass conversion, and time on stream are considered, for a total mass-flow of 397712 kg/h of banana rachis and 4167 kg/h of rose stems.
We concluded that the highest yields are obtained in the production of volatiles with a total conversion of the biomass in the CSTR, PFR, and Batch reactors compared with the simulation of a Gibbs reactor, with biomass conversion up 90%. The results obtained are the composition of the output products: gases and solids derived from biomass, whose yields depend on the operation variables in the simulated reactors, as well as the structure of the starting raw material used for the simulation.
The products obtained in the simulation processes are carbon, water, carbon monoxide, and methane, which has a high potential for energy conversion, the best drying condition is at 132 °C. The reaction temperature is around 270-320 °C. For better transfer of energy, the nitrogen as used as inert of the reaction.
It is verified that the high residual biomass of Ecuadorian agroindustries: banana rachis and rose stems are susceptible to being valued on an industrial scale for use in biorefineries and to provide an energetic alternative to the biomass wastes..

Process Simulation/ Aspen Plus®/ Devolatilization/ Banana Rachis/ Rose Stems/ Reactors/ Clean Energy.

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Article Title:
Solar energy assisted small-scale ORC for off-grid power generation.
Author(s): Uzziel Caldiño Herrera, J. C. García J. C. García, Fernando Z Sierra-Espinosa, J Alfredo Rodriguez, Ó. A. Jaramillo, Ó. De Santiago De Santiago and Shehret Tilvaldiev.

This paper presents a simple solar assisted Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) of small-scale for off-grid power generation. The ORC system is only one loop with one working fluid. Two storage tanks are proposed, one is used to store superheated vapor to warrant a constant mass flow in the turbine, which reduces the risk of likely faults caused by high frequency vibration. The second tank is used to store liquid phase fluid before being pumped to the parabolic trough solar energy collector. The paper shows advantages by simplicity of overall configuration and competitive economy, compared against other ORC systems as well as other energy storage schemes. The results indicate that a thermal efficiency nth = 10.11% is obtained for the ORC system working with 0.5 kg/s of working fluid R245fa, in a range of pressure ratio PR = 5. The system uses low storage volume and a reduced PTC surface. This ORC system is designed to generate 10 kW during eight hours per day..

Solar assisted Organic Rankine Cycle; solar radiation in Mexico; turbine of constant mass flow; radial income turbine; energy storage system..

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Article Title:
Combining deep boreholes with solar energy: building energy modelling study.
Author(s): Tomi Thomasson, Rinat Abdurafikov and Elina Mäki.

The use of ground-source and geothermal heat is one of the enablers of energy transition. While traditional borehole thermal energy storages do not exceed 100-300 m in depth, in recent years there has been a growing interest to increase the depth in order to provide higher output temperature and to minimize the space requirement, potentially improving the overall economic performance. Within Smart Otaniemi, a smart energy research project in Finland, research and piloting is ongoing to develop system concepts and components for coaxial boreholes with depths up to 2000 m.
To evaluate the borehole performance from multiple perspectives, modelling approach consisting of three steps was created: analytical calculations to assess the borehole heat transfer, dynamic simulation to determine the annual energy output, and system optimization to understand the techno-economic feasibility in the context of a building energy system. In system optimization, multiple alternative configurations coupling borehole with solar energy (electrical and thermal) in a seven-floor office building were created and compared to reference configuration in terms of electricity, heating and cooling. Consequently, the optimal control strategies for combinations of solar energy, borehole, heat pump and storages connected to building heating and cooling demand, could be evaluated.
Based on preliminary modelling results, the combination of borehole and solar energy can decrease the annualized system cost (investment and operation), but a clear trade-off between increasing self-sufficiency and achieving economic feasibility exists. The simulations suggest that for solar thermal, higher level of integration for providing building heating is required, as only charging the borehole and consequently increasing the heat pump performance was not alone found economically feasible. On the other hand, investment on solar power to cover the combined electricity demand of building, heat pump and circulation pumps was found the best option economically, also increasing the amount of energy charged to the borehole. The work will continue by utilizing results obtained from the piloting to further validate the borehole models, and exploring different solar hybrid configuration options and their feasibility in more detail..

building energy system; hybrid energy system; borehole thermal energy storage; solar energy; optimization.

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Article Title:
Establishing Technological Networks and Institutional Arrangements for Energy Recovery of Municipal Solid Waste in the Metropolitan Region of Campinas.
Author(s): Gabriel Dias Mangolini Neves, Patricia Helena Lara dos Santos Matai and Alessandro Sanches Perei.

The integrated management of municipal solid waste (MSW) is one of the challenges of Brazilian municipal governments. Based on the objectives set by the Brazilian National Solid Waste Policy (PNRS), the present study aims to establish possibilities for institutional arrangements and technological networks (worked by Santos, 1996, Fiore, 2013, e, Gambi, 2018) to promote Waste-to-Energy (WtE) technologies for the energy recovery of MSW in metropolitan regions, having as a case study the Metropolitan Region of Campinas (RMC), Brazil. The RMC was chosen because its socioeconomic and environmental characteristics are common to other national and international metropolitan regions, especially in the global South. The literature review uses Archival Research Method (ARM) and Documentary Research for gathering secondary data (Gil, 2008; Sanches-Pereira et al., 2016). Primary data collection use SnowBall as an information search method (Hudelson, 1994). The diagnostic showed that MSW management system in the region relies on intermunicipal consortia. In fact, there are 3 intermunicipal consortia in the regions (i.e. CONSIMARES with 7 municipalities: from which 5 are members of the RMC; CONSAB with 9 municipalities, from which 6 are located in the RMC; and CISBRA with 12 municipalities but just one is part of the RMC). In addition, the MSW management system presents a high dependence on private landfills for final disposal, a low recovery rate of recyclable materials by the municipalities (e.g. 2,8% in average), and a 42% self-sufficiency in solid waste management cost coverage (e.g. municipal waste handling fees). The study calculated the potential for energy recovery for each one of the selected technologies (e.g. landfill gas capture, anaerobic digestion, incineration, and gasification). The results showed that, in the business as usual scenario, the technological routes presented a maximum energy recovery potential of 390 GWh with the use of incineration. In a second scenario, considering a structural change in management, with the guarantee of an adequate separation of MSW in the RMC (i.e. 49% of organic matter and 33% of recyclable material) and based on the destination to the recycling route of 20% of recyclable material (issues related to recycling dynamics were not addressed in this study), there is a maximum energy recovery potential of 250 GWh with the combination of anaerobic digestion and gasification technologies. This second scenario, on the contrary of the business as usual scenario, presents a series of positive points aligned with PNRS (e.g. possibility of prioritizing the management of MSW through recycling, insertion of recyclable material collectors’ cooperatives, treating MSW through energy recovery, reduction of environmental impacts in waste treatment, reducing the volume of MSW destined for landfills combined with greater financial sustainability in the management of MSW in municipalities), despite representing an energy potential of 64% of business as usual scenario and 2.2% of RMC’s annual consumption. Hence, WtE systems can not only improve MSW management systems but also strengthens cooperation among municipalities through consortium and meet PNRS objectives..

Municipal Solid Waste; energy recovery; Waste-to-Energy; circular economy; integrated management; metropolitan areas.

I have a BSc in Environmental Engineer from UNESP – São Paulo State University “Júlio de Mesquita Filho”, Brazil. Currently, I am working as Environmental Engineer at the Municipality of Campinas, SP, in the sector of environmental licensing, regional planning, and solutions based on nature. In addition, I am a MSc student in the Energy Program at the Institute of Energy and Environment, USP – University of São Paulo, Brazil..

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Article Title:
Household hybrid microgrid sizing: a case study.
Author(s): Irwin Diaz-Diaz.

The integration of renewable energies, e.g., photovoltaic and wind, energy storage systems, and electric vehicles in the distribution system has generated the microgrid concept. Unfortunately, the cost and random nature of the renewable energy resources complicate their planning, integration, and use with the electric power system. Due to their nature, renewable energy sources are more reliable when they are used combined, e.g., solar and wind, compared when they work alone. Therefore, it is important to combine different energy resources to satisfy the load demand. The microgrid design is decisive, it must take into consideration the appropriate size of the renewable energy sources and the energy storage system ensuring an economic, efficient, and reliable operation of the microgrid. In this paper, the optimization process for a hybrid microgrid sizing is presented. The hybrid microgrid is comprised of a photovoltaic, wind and an energy storage system (battery bank or fuel cell). The main idea of this research is to minimize the total cost of the hybrid microgrid, while preserving its dependability. Moreover, the microgrid sizing takes into consideration some crucial paremeters, such as the irregular energy generation due to the nature of the solar and wind energy systems, the battery’s state of charge (SoC) estimation, variations of the power during the grid-tide operation mode. The proposed method operate with the hourly solar radiation and wind speed during a year, as well as the load profile..

microgrid, renewable energy resources, solar PV system, energy storage..

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Article Title:
Organic Acid-Mediated Leaching of Hazardous Metals from Waste Solar Electricity Panels.
Author(s): M Chakankar, C Su and H Hocheng.

Solar energy is commonly seen as a clean energy source and an alternative to the fossil fuels. The lifetime of solar cell module is about 25-30 years of power generation. Taking into account the rate at which the new solar cells are being installed and those which are approaching their end-of-life, the cumulative amount of solar cell waste will increase to two millions tons by 2040. The waste in single year will be nearly one million tons in 2050. Such a huge amount of waste represents a challenge for future waste management.
Moreover, these solar cells, on one hand, are comprised of various heavy metals including lead, cadmium, and bismuth which are hazardous to the ecosystem, and on the other hand are rich in valuable metals like silver, tellurium, indium, etc. The end-of-life solar cells need to be recycled not only to meet the ever increasing demand of metals but also to avoid environmental hazards. Various valuable metals including Ag, Te, In etc. will be disposed of as waste if spent solar cells are not recycled with proper management. Many of these metals used in solar cells are present in low concentrations in natural deposits as they do not occur as primary ores and are only found as by-products associated with other primary base metal and precious metal ores. Indium is a by-product of zinc production whereas, tellurium is obtained as a by-product of copper, lead, gold and bismuth ores processing.
A broad screening of metal recovery from waste solar cells is presented for reclamation of various metals in waste solar cells using synthetic organic acids. Fungi are known to produce various organic acids which play a vital role in metal recovery. In order to investigate the same, synthetic organic acids were used alone and in combination for recovery of metals. Various organic acids like citric acid, oxalic acid, gluconic acid and malic acid were employed for the same. Preliminary results suggest the combination of citric and oxalic acid being most significant in recovery of metals as compared to the other organic acids alone or in combination..

Solar Panel, Bioleaching, Hazardous Metal, Recycling, Organic Acid.

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Article Title:
New approaches to Circular Economy in the Fashion Industry in the post-COVID world.
Author(s): Antonio Marques and Anastasia Marques.

The Circular Economy in the Fashion Industry is facing new challenges in the recent times. Althougt the decrease of clothing consumption in the last months caused by pandemic COVID-19, the European Economies have to be prepared to the “new normal” as well as to the increase in new disposal materials due to COVID-19 as social masks and other protection equipments in textile materials. This new “pandemic wastes” will be included in the household wastes and/or in the wastes already separated to recycling (paper, glass and plastics).
TO-BE-GREEN is an innovative business model for clothing disposal, using an app (TO-BE-GREEN) and focused in millennials (Y) and zoomers (Z) generation. It aims to give a new solution to the textiles wastes, following the wastes hierarchy suggested by EU (prevention, preparing for re-use, recycling, other recovery, final disposal), in a “win-win” strategy, with transparency, traceability and with a Circular Economy vision. The sharing economy and digitization (Industry 4.0) can be together in a new approach to deal with fashion wastes, given a second life to many items disposed by the consumers. They will have a tool to disposal and to share fashion products, the municipalities will save money by reducing the textiles wastes, the social organizations and schools will have a tool to help their missions, young designers will work in upcycling creative processes, and the textile industry will have post-consumer wastes ready to be integrated in the production process. At the end of the day, the fashion industry will save natural and financial resources, reducing gases emissions, and giving a second life to fashion products.
It involves all the fashion value chain, starting from the fashion consumers, involving municipalities, social organizations, textile companies (working with recycled products), schools, fashion academies and young designers, swap markets and second hand shops, and municipal solid wastes partners.
This paper will describe the application of the TO-BE-GREEN solution in a Portuguese municipality (around 50.000 inhabitants), including a new tool called “COVID FREE” to collect and recycling the social masks discarded by the students. These fibrous materials will be processed to produce new “raw material” and to develop new design objects to the schools. This is a pilot project with two high schools and a municipality that will support the startup and spin off TO-BE-GREEN..

Circular Economy, Fashion Industry, TO-BE-GREEN, Digitization

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Article Title:
Techno-Economic Assessment of an Integrated PV System Using Innovative Sizing Tool for Educational Building (Case Study).
Author(s): Mohamed Hammad, Ibrahem Mohamed and Ahmed Obeyda.

The ever-growing population makes the world in the ever-growing need for energy. Meanwhile, the depletion of conventional energy resources became a fact that cannot be denied. Knowing the dreadful fact that these resources enhance the global warming phenomenon, the significance of the renewable resources of energy cannot be underestimated. Besides being limitless, they are clean and cost-effective resources. In the past decades, there is a tremendous attention of many researchers toward the solar photovoltaic energy. Many academic researchers care about the utilization of solar panels in universities to reduce the large load resulted from the massive usage. As an unprecedented move in the Egyptian universities, the British University in Egypt (BUE) started to apply this idea in the rooftop of the faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering. The purpose of this research paper is to explain how solar panels can satisfy the energy needs of academic buildings. First, the overall surface area of the building rooftop was measured by the laser-distance meter and was about 950 m2. Second, the load that can be covered by solar panels was calculated 200 KW. two criteria were utilized to power the faculty which are the standalone PV system consisting of solar panels and diesel generator, and the grid-connected system consisting of solar panels attached to the electric grid. To easily calculate the solar panels configuration, a software, Center for Emerging Learning Technologies (CELT), was created by a staff from the faculty of Engineering at the BUE. In order to assure the system output, HOMER and PV Syst software programs were used. Both criteria were applied on the three software programs and the outputs were compared to each other. The results were close to each other which reflects the correct PV sizing of the system..

PV sizing, PV syst, HOMER energy, BUE CELT..

Mohamed M. Hammad is a student at year one at the faculty of Energy and Environmental Engineering at the British University in Egypt. He was honored with the first place over his faculty for two successive years. Mohamed Hammad was a student at STEM school in Alexandria. He was a finalist at NASA space apps in Alexandria.
He was honored with the third place at the regional state at HULT prize competition. He is a research assistant with a research at solar panels and has a research at Techno-Economic Assessment of an Integrated PV System Using Innovative Sizing Tool for Educational Building which will be applied at the British University in Egypt. His research is accepted to be presented at the Photovoltaic Specialist Conference (PVSC) which is held in Caligari, Canada. His research is accepted to be presented at the European Photovoltaic Solar Energy Conference ( EU PV SEC) which is held in Lisbon, Portugal.
He is a finalist at Shell competition 2020 for imagining the future. He attended the training of Wind Energy that was supervised by Erasmus company..

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Biogas Production from Food Waste and Sewage Sludge by Thermophilic Methane Fermentation Using an Anaerobic Membrane Bioreactor.
Author(s): Yemei Li, Guangze Guo, Hui Cheng and Yu-You Li.

Municipal solid waste is a mixture of non-hazardous commercial and residential wastes collected by the local authority or municipality. As human beings embrace higher levels of development in population and economy, more waste is generated in all aspects of life and production. The management and treatment of municipal solid waste is a significant challenge that all mankind must face. Considering the energy shortage and global warming, the utilization of municipal solid waste, which contained organic fraction, as a renewable source of energy has a great potential to realize sustainable development. Methane fermentation which can produce methane-rich biogas as renewable energy is a widely used way to realize the waste-to-energy transformation for municipal solid waste. Considering the effect of temperature, thermophilic fermentation has higher metabolic rate, degradation rate of organic matters, methane production efficiency and pathogen destruction rate. However, the poor flocculation ability and settleability of the thermophilic digesters resulting in poorer effluent quality and even treatment efficiency restrict their application. Subsequently, the membrane separation technology that can retain microorganisms and improve effluent properties was combined with the traditional thermophilic digestion and formed an innovative thermophilic anaerobic membrane bioreactor (ThAnMBR). So far, the AnMBR can be used in methane generation from wastewater and organic solid waste and recover dissolved methane from waste effluent. However, very few research about the methane fermentation performance and system energy assessment can be found in the municipal solid waste treatment by the ThAnMBR.
In this study, methane fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge, which were used to represent municipal solid waste due to their large generation volume, in a ThAnMBR was investigated. The long-term operation performance, the methane fermentation efficiency and the waste-to-energy efficiency of the process were evaluated. Furthermore, the energy assessment of the system was conducted.
The results showed that the biogas generated from the methane fermentation of food waste and sewage sludge reached 2.50 L/L-reactor/d with a methane content of 59% when the food waste to sewage sludge ratio was 75% : 25% as total solids based. According to the experiment results, the fermentation of 0.72 m3 food waste and 0.28 m3 sewage sludge can generate 22.30 Nm3 methane gas which can be converted into 887.54 MJ of heat, equivalent to 22.39 L of crude oil or 30.50 kg of coking coal. The anaerobic digestion efficiency and the waste-to-energy efficiency of the process were 89% and 80% under the experimental condition. In the energy consumption analysis, the energy used for biogas sparging and sludge recirculation were regarded as the most power-hungry parts of the system. In general, the ThAnMBR used for food waste and sewage sludge digestion can achieve net energy output.

Methane fermentation; Biogas; Waste-to-energy; AnMBR; Food waste; Sewage sludge..

Yemei Li is a Ph. D. student at Tohoku University in Japan. She obtained her B. Eng. and M. Eng. from Hohai University and Xiamen University in China, respectively. She is interested in the research topics related to waste and wastewater treatment, resource and energy recycle and membrane technology..

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Article Title:
Effect of Passive Solar Design Strategies on Indoor Thermal Comfort and Energy Conservation in High-rise Residential Buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau.
Author(s): Rudai Shan, Tiemao Shi and Yuan Fan.

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Feasability of a direct use of concentrated solar energy for seawater desalination.
Author(s): Dylan Lorfing, Aras Ahmadi and Régis Olives.

One of the major challenges facing humanity in this century is the supply of fresh water. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 29% of the world’s population still does not have access to a safe source of fresh water. On earth, seawater corresponds to 96.6% of the total available water resource, and therefore desalination of seawater represents a great potential for supplying fresh water.
Today, desalination technologies range from multi-stage flash distillation (MSF) and multi-effect distillation (MED) to membrane distillation (MD) and reverse osmosis (RO). These technologies are either based on an intensive use of primary thermal energy from fossil fuels (MSF, MED, MD) or depend on an existing electricity supply infrastructure (RO, vacuum membrane distillation). Regarding the global increase of energy resource consumption, it appears that desalination technologies have to become more efficient and less depending on fossil fuel. The idea of an intensified coupling of concentrated solar heating and desalination within the same boiler module, as proposed in this work, becomes indeed relevant for remote places such as tropical regions, coasts and islands, where there is a direct correlation between the scarcity of fresh water and the intensity of solar radiation, and where the sun remains the only renewable source available.
A new solar boiler for the desalination of seawater is designed and studied in this work. The intensified module works with concentrated solar heating as the principal renewable energy supply. The solar concentration is provided by solar collectors (moving mirrors) which concentrate the direct radiation of a large area on a small surface. The upper face of the receiver (upper segment of the module) is heated intensively and transfers heat to the seawater on the lower tank. The steam produced is extracted from above at atmospheric pressure while the residual seawater is recycled in the bottom tank at liquid state. The study proposes a comprehensive modelling approach, to adjust the design of the solar boiler under concentration. The model takes into account the design parameters, including geometry, material, shape and surface proprieties of the solar receiver, and concentrated solar radiation on the upper surface of the solar receiver, as well as the operating conditions in the seawater recycling tank. It provides a comprehensive description of the different heat transfers occurring in the module at the level of the solar receiver, the seawater tank and the sensible heat losses included.
For this study, the dependency of the boiling regime and its efficiency on the geometry of the module, the type and shape of the materials used for the solar receiver and the general operating conditions (temperatures and flow rates) at the atmospheric pressure are evaluated by modelling. Using the proposed model, the overall performance of such an intensified module is studied at steady-state regime. The study allows to conclude on the feasibility of this kind of integrated solar boiler..

Solar heating, Seawater distillation, Seawater boiler.

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Renewable energy consumption and the role of Income inequality in BRICS countries.
Author(s): Usman Mehmood.

Even though, a sufficient amount of studies available which investigated the link between income inequality and environmental indicators in different countries. These studies considered the political, environmental and economic factors of renewable energy. Therefore, the potential link between income inequality and renewable energy consumption has been ignored. This research is the very first attempt to investigate the impacts of income distribution on renewable energy in BRICS countries over the period of 2000Q1-2015Q4 for Brazil, Russia, China and South Africa. The maximum available data of 2000Q1-2012Q4 was included for India. The institutional, economic and environmental variables like corruption, economic growth, trade are also included in the model. The findings show that lower income inequality is increasing renewable energy consumption in Brazil, India and China. Moreover, increased income inequality will increase renewable energy in South Africa significantly. Additionally, income distribution has no effect on renewable energy in the Russian federation. This study is important for policy makers to achieve sustainable development. The most important factors for sustainable development can be achieved simultaneously. Policy makers can also achieve renewable energy targets by distributing fair income. Another important policy implication is the role of corruption in achieving renewable energy targets.

Income inequality; renewable energy; corruption; BRICS countries; CO2
emissions; ARDL.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title:
An all-solid state paper-based Zn-Ag battery.
Author(s): Yifei Wang, Shijing Luo, Wending Pan and Dennis Leung.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title:
A water-in-salt NaCl electrolyte based high-voltage aqueous Na/Zn hybrid ion battery.
Author(s): Wending Pan, Yifei Wang, Xiaolong Zhao and Dennis Y.C Leung.

Aqueous rechargeable Na-ion battery was one of the most promising secondary batteries to be an alternative to their lithium counterparts, as abundant and low-cost sodium resources. However, the development of electrode materials face lots of difficulties, such as low intercalation voltage and restricted discharge capacity. Here, we report a low-cost water-in-salt NaCl electrolyte based aqueous sodium/zinc hybrid ion battery system, which utilized zinc metal as anode directly. Thanks to the intercalation of Na+ and Zn2+ on the cathode and stripping/deposition of Zn2+ on the anode, the battery achieved a high OCV of 2.4V with a discharge capacity of 105 mAh g-1, corresponding to a high energy density of 155 Wh kg-1. The battery also shows a good cycling stability with a satisfactory efficiency of 64% after 100 cycles..

Aqueous Na-Zn ion battery; Dual-ion battery; High-voltage battery..

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
MYRTE- A zero emissions hydrogen technology Platform for advance research in sustainable energy.
Author(s): Christian Cristofari and Jean-Louis Canaletti.

University Institute of technology integrate researchers who have devolved Technology Platforms in order to propose renewable energy systems viable. We propose to present an exemple of transferring our research throught MYRTE Platform which is composed of several sub-systems that include in particular a 565 kWc photovoltaic farm that aims to provide electrical energy to the electrical network but also to the electrolyser, two PEM electrolysers (10 Nm3/h and 13 Nm3/h electrolysis capacity), two H2/O2 PEM fuel cells (100 kW and 50 kW) that provide electricity using the gas stored in the tanks to deliver electricity to the network, three Tanks to store hydrogen (1960Nm3) and oxygen (980 Nm3) produced via the electrolyser, a SCADA system that ensures the real-time control of the whole system, an electrical components (inverters, rectifiers and transformer station) that ensure the conditioning of the electrical energy to provide the electrical network. The objectives of MYRTE platform operations in a smart-grid network are : -PV guaranteed power: MYRTE operator guarantees a fixed amount of electrical power to the EDF network function of EDF needs -Peak shaving: electricity production to cover the daily peak loads (morning & evening). To do so, both the fuel-cell and PV panels work to match the demand Load following/PV smoothing: electricity production to cover the energy demand variations. It implies a continuous control of PV panels’ production to activate the fuel-cell and the electrolyser to match the grid demand. To ensure an accurate load following, the operator has to rely on a reliable weather forecast system associated to a PV energy production simulator model. In this paper, we describe the formatting guidelines for the conference abstract papers. We ask that authors follow some simple guidelines. In essence, we ask you to make your abstract look exactly like this document. The easiest way to do this is simply to replace the content with your own material..

Hydrogen, Fuel Cell, PV, Technology Platform.

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Article Title:
Paglia-Orba – A highly flexible technological instrument for studying Smart Grid.
Author(s): Christian Cristofari and Jean-Louis Canaletti.

The aim of Paglia-Orba is to test and characterize components of solar smart-grid representative of a village, a neighborhood on three levels of qualification : unit Testing of the components, functional and dynamic tests of smart micro-grid, and functional testing of the micro-network energy management. It’s a technology support enabling industrial design, development, testing and qualifying all types of components of Smart Grid: production units, storage capacities, balancing protocols- Islanding mode and grid connected mode. Paglia-Orba integrate 118,7 kWp of various technologies solar PV plant (p-Si, c-Si, CIS, Concentrated PV), 202,8 kW – 301 kWh of storage capacities with different technologies as lead-acid, ion-Li, Redox batteries, flywheel, hydro-pumped, hydrogen hydrure storage. For the load, micro grid is connected to powering offices, household and electrical vehicles. Through this platform we combine renewable energy, electricity sources and electricity storage means and we try to answer the most common questions -What is the most appropriate storage technology for Renewable Energy ?- What is the optimization of energy strategy management ?.

smart grid, storages technologies, PV, Technology Platform.

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Comparative Study of Optimal Sizing Approaches for Microgrid Systems.
Author(s): Sihem Amara, Sana Toumi and Chokri Ben Salah.

This paper deals with comparative study of optimal sizing approaches for isolated microgrid systems (MG). Indeed, recently, microgrid systems have undergone a big development and they can be composed by (PV/ Battery), (PV/ Wind/ Battery), (PV/ Wind/ Hydrogen/ Battery),… Due to this development, several optimal sizing approaches have been studied such as analytical method (based on an optimal scheduling analysis), iterative method (Loss of power supply probability (LPSP)/ Deficiency of power supply probability (DPSP)), artificial method (Genetic algorithm (GA), Particle swarm optimization (PSO)) in order to determine the most economical and reliable ones..

Microgrid; Optimal sizing; Comparative; Analytical; Iterative; Artificial; Economical; Reliable.

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Article Title:
Influence of the metakaolin level on some physicochemical properties of plastic films based on cassava starch.
Author(s): Namory Meite, Léon Koffi Konan and Samuel Oyetola.

The fight against plastic pollution requires the developpement of biopolymers as an alternative to synthetic polymers. Starch is natural polymer that can easily plasticized with glycerol [1]. Howewer, thermoplastic starchbased materials are generallly characterized by low mechanical properties and high sensitivity to water [2]. These properties can be improved by incorporation of mineral filler [3]. This work aims to study the influence of metakaolin on some physico-chemical of composites developed by a hydrothermal treatment of cassava starch plasticized with 30% of glycerol. Metakaolin is added at various levels (0, 5, 10 and 15 per 100g of starch) to mixtures. The tensile strength and the water properties of composites were analyzed. The increase in the metakaolin rate makes the composites films rigid but decreases elongation at break. The barrier effect to thermal decomposition and water vapor diffusion increases with the rate of metakaolin. The incorparation of 10% of metakaolin is suitable for better compromise between rigidity and elasticity of the plastic films. The valorisation of metakaolin in biodegradable packaging that can replace synthetic polymers is possible.

Biopolymers ; Biodegradable ; starch ; Metakaolin.

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Heating of an anaerobic digester using a solar energy system.
Author(s): Maha Mahir, Anas El Maakoul, Ismail Khay and Mohamed Bakhouya.

To reduce the increase in environmental pollution, some countries around the world have started to look for ways to reduce it. Among the solutions considered anaerobic digestion technology can reduce the aggravation of this problem by reusing organic waste and producing methane which can be recovered into renewable energy. One of the most important parameters that affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion process is temperature. Therefore, most biogas plants are equipped with heating systems that increase the temperature of the bioreactor and keep it at a set value. Solar energy is one of the methods used for this because it is one of the most abundant renewable energies. In this study, a biogas plant heated with solar energy was studied in depth to form a solar bioreactor system in order to achieve the biochemical storage of solar energy and solve the problems encountered by the production of solar energy. In addition, a comparison between the digestion and co-digestion systems was made. Finally, the optimization of a solar energy system for a biogas reactor of different volumes for different Moroccan cities in several climatic zones and also for several types of local waste was carried out.

Solar thermal collector, anaerobic digestion, organic wastes, biogas production.

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Article Title:
Effect of Intake Charge Temperature on HCCI Diesel Engine under Oxy-Fuel Combustion.
Author(s): Raouf Mobasheri and Abdel Aitouche.

CORRESPONDING AUTHOR

Pending Registration

Article Title:
Optimal Design of a Power-to-Hydrogen/Power-to-Methane Supply Chain: Application to Occitania region, France.
Author(s): Eduardo Carrera Guilarte and Catherine Azzaro Pantel.

The EU targets to cut its emissions by 80-95% below 1990 levels by 2050. Renewable energy sources (RES) are at the core of this transition since the power sector accounted for nearly two-thirds of CO2 emissions. Yet, the intermittent nature of RES is a barrier to their penetration into the energy grid. To meet this challenge, Power-to-Gas (PtG) systems represent a promising alternative, transforming the overproduction of electricity issues, i.e., from photovoltaics (PV) and wind parks in the form of a gas energy carrier.
This work focuses on the optimal design of a Hydrogen and Methane Supply Chain (HMSC) produced from PtG systems: it implies an electrolysis process to obtain hydrogen (Power-to-Hydrogen, PtM). Hydrogen can be subsequently used as an energy carrier. Via a methanation step, it can react with CO2 to produce synthetic methane and water (Power-to-Methane, PtM), which facilitates the use of the existing gas network. Both pathways will be assessed in this study, considering hydrogen as an intermediate product to produce methane and also as a final product for several market segments. Such process conversions have a typical efficiency of 65–75% for PtH and 75% for methanation (High Heating Value, HHV).
The objective of this work is to model and perform a bi-objective optimization of the HMSC to provide effective support for the study of deployment scenarios. Particular attention is paid to the meet simultaneously hydrogen demand to be used as fuel and to produce methane from the methanation process. The methodological framework, based on a Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) approach, is implemented in the GAMS environment according to a multi-period approach (2035-2050) with several available energy sources (wind, PV, hydro, national network) for hydrogen production. It also considers the potential transport of hydrogen from one grid to the other one by tanker-trucks. CO2 sources stem mainly from methanization and gasification processes. Hydrogen demand was determined based on the expected use of fuel cell electric vehicles. The demand for renewable methane has been estimated from the scenarios developed by the French Environmental and Energy Management Agency (ADEME).
The objectives to be minimized are the Total Annual Cost (TAC) and the Global Warming Potential (GWP) related to the whole HMSC over the entire period studied. The mono-objective optimization of TAC and GWP are studied, as well as the optimal point chosen from the Technique for Order of Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). The optimization variables involve the number and size of production and storage units, the number of tanker-trucks as well as the flows of imported/exported hydrogen from one grid to another one. The methodology is applied to the case study of Occitania (France). The Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) and the GWP for hydrogen and methane was obtained. Besides, a sensibility analysis was performed. The results show that with electricity prices close to 35 €/kWh, hydrogen and methane could play an important role as energy vectors, even if their evolution will depend on the policy implemented, such as carbon tax..

Power-to-Gas, Hydrogen, Methane, MILP, GAMS.

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Article Title:
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for Landfill options for disposal of Solid Urban Waste (MSW) in Bissau.
Author(s): Nino Júlio Nhanca, Carlos Alberto Mendes Moraes and Gilson Lima da Silva.

Municipal solid waste management (MSW) is considered a basic sanitation sector and has not received the necessary attention by public and private managers in the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, mainly in the country’s capital (Bissau), thus causing pollution and contamination to the environment. Bissau, which is the field of study for this article, has a population of approximately 390,000, generating an average of 150 tons of MSW per day, with a per capita generation rate of 0.5 kg / day. The collection of these solid residues varies from 15% to 55% and are sent directly to an inadequate landfill. The central and municipal authorities are discussing a possible installation of an adequate waste management system to face the problem, taking into account the economic difficulties that the country faces. The objective of the article is to compare two alternative techniques (controlled landfill and landfill) for the treatment and final disposal of MSW. The methodology of this article used LCA to evaluate five scenarios, where scenario -1, all waste is deposited in the controlled landfill without any separation; in Scenario-2, 30% was recycled, while 70% is deposited in the controlled landfill; in Scenario-3, 30% recycled, 37% for composting and 33% for controlled landfill, in Scenario -4, 100% of MSW deposited in the landfill, without separation, without gas and slurry collection, in Scenario-5, 100 % MSW deposited in the landfill, 70% methane gas collected and burned and 90% manure is collected and treated. The SimaPro 9. (2019) software was used, the CML 2 base line 2001 V2.05 and ReciPe-8 methods were applied to model the scenarios. After comparing the scenarios, the results showed that all five scenarios emitted certain amounts of different potential impacts. Scenario-3 shows a beneficial result for the environment, after the inclusion of the recycling and composting unit, significantly reducing the amount of emissions, delaying the initial generation of pollutants. This is due to the removal of a large amount of biodegradable waste for composting. Despite variations in emissions between the options tested, the assessment shows that Scenario-5 is more preferable. This is due to the low contribution in terms of eutrophication, global warming and photochemical oxidation. For Life Cycle Cost, (CCV) as well as Social Life Cycle Assessment, (ACV-S), the study concluded that Scenario-3 is more advantageous, because of the sorting, recycling, and marketing of materials, and jobs for waste pickers, as the cost of transportation remains the same. This article can assist decision makers in assessing the appropriate system to meet the demand for MSW management in Bissau and in the country..

Life Cycle Assessment (LCA); Controlled landfill; Conventional landfill; Urban solid waste (MSW)..

He holds a bachelor’s and master’s degree in Metallurgical Engineering from UFRGS in 1988 and 1991, and a PhD in Materials Science – UMIST England in 1997. Researcher 2 in Technological Development and Innovative Extension CNPq since 2009. Full Professor I in the Master and Doctorate courses in Civil Engineering with Concentration in Waste Management, and in the Master of Mechanical Engineering in Energy, UNISINOS. Dean of the Polytechnic School from 2012 to 2017. Coordinator of the undergraduate course in Environmental Engineering from 2010 – 2016. He has experience in material characterization, Environmental Management, cleaner production, life cycle assessment, circular economy, Recycling Waste, development of sustainable materials. He supervised 43 masters and 3 doctors. He has 316 articles in journals and scientific events. He has 9 patents, 3 of which have been filed, and 6 granted, and 6 industrial designs granted. He leads the Materials Characterization Research Group (NucMat). The fundamental objective of the group is the characterization, management, and selection of materials, to adapt them in order to minimize the generation of waste, and recycle solid waste from the industry as by-products.

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Article Title:
Preparation, thermal characterization and thermal conductivity modeling of paraffin embedded in high porosity metal foam as PCM composite for Li-ion batteries thermal management.
Author(s): Mohamed Moussa El Idi and Mustapha Karkri.

In this work, a paraffin- metal foam composite were prepared by the vacuum impregnation method. Aluminum and nickel foams were used. The aim of this study is to characterize the thermal behavior of these composites with a view to their use in the thermal management of Li-ion batteries. First, thermal conductivities and diffusivities in solid state were evaluated using a Hot Disk Thermal Constants Analyzer (TPS 2500S) and the Transient Guarded Hot Plate Technique (TGHPT) was used to determine thermal conductivity in liquid state. Next, the effective thermal conductivity of the composite was modeled as a function of the structure of the foam, the thermal conductivity of the metal foam and the thermal conductivity of the PCM. The results show a high impact of thermal conductivity of metal foam and a minor impact of pore size on the effective thermal conductivity..

Thermal energy storage, Phase change material, Metal foam, BTMS..

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Article Title:
Startup of anaerobic digester fed with cattle manure.
Author(s): Bipasyana Dhungana, Dipti Paudel and Sunil Prasad Lohani.

With over 7.4 million head of cattle and almost 102239 tons of manure production per day, Nepal has tremendous potential for producing biogas from cattle manure. Household bio-digester fed with cattle manure has been quite popular in Nepal with more than 425,000 units of smaller than 10m3 size installed since the year 1955. However, the startup of the anaerobic digester has always been a tedious process extending about 2 months to be able to produce methane-rich biogas. Digester start-up is observed to be a very complex process that depends on various factors namely, temperature, reactor design, feeding material, and inoculum used. At present, about 70% of the digester volume is fed with fresh cow manure during the start-up of the plant in Nepal. Though seeding of the digester with sludge from existing wastewater treatment plants or biogas plants has been important during the start-up process, the use of this in the household digesters of Nepal seems unpopular due to unavailability of a large quantity of digestate around the newly constructed plants. In this study, the start-up process of the bio-digester fed with fresh cattle manure at the average ambient temperature was investigated in a 5 L reactor. Out of the 5 L of the reactor volume, 3 L was used for digester volume while the rest was used for gas storage as a headspace. Two sets of experiments were carried out. The first reactor was initially fed with 70% of the digester volume, and after 47 days of initial feeding, the digester was continuously fed with the organic loading rate of 0.3 gVS/L/day. The fed cattle manure had 8% Total Solid (TS), pH 6.4, and Carbon: Nitrogen (C: N) ratio of 30:1. Another experiment was carried out to analyze the startup of the anaerobic digester fed with a mixture of sewage sludge and fresh cow manure in a 2:1 ratio (TS of 10%, pH of mixture 7.1, and C: N ratio of 22:1) at the average ambient temperature of in the same 5 L reactor.
Both the systems were operated in ambient room temperature which mimicked the condition of the actual household bio-digester. These trials were compared in terms of methane composition obtained during the start-up process. Independent of any other sort of inoculum and pretreatments, the time to reach and stable above 50% methane content of the produced biogas in a digester fed with fresh cow manure was observed to be in 56 days whereas same methane percentage was obtained in another experiment with sewage sludge and cattle manure was in just 19 days of operation. The methane composition in the first trial was observed to exponentially increase after gradual feeding at low OLR The study suggested that the start-up time could be shortened by the addition of cow manure with sewage sludge maintaining pH around 7 for initiating anaerobic digestion in ambient condition. It has also been noted from the experiment that initially feeding a digester at low OLR may contribute to stabilize the reactor for the long run and produce higher methane content..

Anaerobic ,Cow, Digester,Inoculum,Manure, Sewage,Sludge,Start-up,Temperature,Nepal.

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Article Title:
OPTIMISATION OF A SOLAR PV WATER PUMPING SYSTEM USING EMPIRICAL SOLAR RESOURCE AND PUMP PERFORMANCE DATA.
Author(s): Tawanda Hove and Ithumeleng Moholo.

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Article Title:
Implementing bottom-up sustainability innovation in engineering design practice.
Author(s): Mai Linneberg, Christian Remy and Devarajan Ramanujan.

The sustainability-related performance of engineered products can be significantly influenced during the design stage. To aid this process, there has been an increasing focus on creating tools for integrating eco-innovation into sustainable design. In this paper, we focus on establishing the requirements for implementing bottom-up sustainability innovation into engineering design practice. Bottom-up sustainability innovations, especially those resulting from execution-level employees such as engineering designers and shop floor technicians, can significantly improve the sustainability of a company’s products. Securing the implementation and success of bottom-up sustainability innovation, however, largely depends on the ability of the organisation to retain employees with the ability to take ownership, engage in risk-taking behaviours and show enduring personal initiative even in the early stages of the innovation process. Thus, a significant challenge to this process is aligning sustainability-focused innovations with overall organizational strategy and vice versa. Based on the existing literature on bottom-up sustainability innovation, this paper identifies the opportunities and barriers for integrating bottom-up sustainability innovations from different places in and around the organization, with the organization’s sustainability strategy. We also conducted interviews with engineering designers, manufacturing planners, technical managers, and senior executives, employed at a leading Danish engineering company in order to relate the identified opportunities and barriers to real-world engineering design practice. Based on these findings, we develop a computer-supported eco-innovation tool that helps the integration of bottom-up sustainability innovation in engineering design by helping designer managers align sustainability innovations from execution-level employees with organizational sustainability strategies dictated by senior management..

Bottom-up innovation; Sustainable design; Eco-innovation.

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Article Title:
Seasonal Performance of a Simple Urban Biodigester.
Author(s): Sunil Prasad Lohani and Bipasyana Dhungana.

Due to the rapid rate of urbanization, the management of solid waste is becoming an important visible problem in Nepal. The waste produced in urban cities of Nepal is about 1600 tons/day of which about 60% comes from households. The composition of the generated waste in urban areas is primarily decomposable (about 60%) which provides scope to convert this waste into bioenergy and fertilizer. As an attempt to provide a clean energy solution as part of organic waste management in urban settings, the performance of urban bio-digester which is a 100 L plastic tank converted into fixed dome bio-digester has been monitored. The digester was designed in such a way that it contains 50 L digester volume and the rest is for biogas holding as headspace. It was operated at ambient temperature fed with urban household food waste and monitored for seasonal performance.The biodigester was started-up in winter (average temperature 10oC) and summer (average temperature 23oC). In both start-up 20% by volume cattle manure having 18% TS, 86% VS, pH 6.4, and C: N ratio of 19 was used as an inoculum and provided with 70 days hydraulic retention time (HRT) in winter and 55 days HRT in summer. The plant was operated for about 90 days in both seasons. The winter start-up showed little biogas production in the initial month and the digester steadily turned into acidic declining pH 3 to 3.5 whereas in the summer the result showed average gas production of 90 L/kgVS with methane composition of about 58%. The pH of outlet slurry remains in the range of 6. This simple plastic tank biodigester seemed to be not efficient to operate under the ambient condition at Kathmandu, however, a special designed reactor integrating low-cost insulation might work well in both seasons..

Organic solid waste, biodigester, seasonal, biogas, HRT.

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Article Title:
Enhanced Drying Column for Improved Performance of Vertical Dryers.
Author(s): Syahrul, Sukmawaty and Mirmanto.

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Article Title:
RO Operation Optimization for Better Renewables Integration in Power Systems.
Author(s): Zeyad Haidar, Mamdooh Al-Saud, Jamel Orfi and Hany Al-Ansary.

RO process is one of the main water desalination technologies in the world. RO desalination plants consume electricity to produce fresh water from sea water. Due to their operation flexibility, RO plants have a vast potential to play a primary role in adapting renewable resources into power systems. This study presents an optimization of RO operation for better renewables penetration into power systems. First, the RO process design was conducted using the well-known IMSDesgin software. The RO process and solar PV sources were represented in IEEE 30-bus system as variable entities. Particles Swam Optimization (PSO) technique was applied to optimize the RO operation by managing the control variables of RE given defined main objective of RO process in order to deliver a pre-specified amount of fresh water. The number of RO units and the output of the variable frequency drive (VFD) were chosen as optimization control variables, where the RO power consumption is being varied in accordance to RE availability. Therefore, the impact of RE variability on power system can be mitigated by the coordination between RO process, RE source and power systems condition..

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Article Title:
Combined Solar Desalination and Solar CPV System.
Author(s): Zeyad Haidar.

This paper is related to patent number US10233095B1 which is related to desalination of sea water, such as a stream of seawater, and particularly to a solar desalination and power generating system combining a Fresnel solar concentrator with a solar desalination still, and further including concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) cell for simultaneously generating electrical power. Thus, Thermal energy generated by the solar radiation being focused on the concentrating photovoltaic cell is transferred to the absorber base through thermal conduction. In the solar desalination and power generating system, cooling of the concentrating photovoltaic cells is effected through thermal transfer with the absorber base. Not only does this heat transfer perform the necessary cooling of the concentrating photovoltaic cells, but it uses this heat, which would ordinarily be seen as waste heat in a conventional concentrating photovoltaic cell-based power system, in the performance of the water distillation. Beside that this novel design solve the problem of extremely high temperature reached in typical CPV beside others nice features like, compactness, lower wind loading, lightness and efficient water desalination system..

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Article Title:
Flexible Single-flow Paper-based Direct Formate Fuel Cells Fabricated by 3-D Printing.
Author(s): Shijing Luo, Yifei Wang and Dennis Y. C. Leung.

As the demands for powering flexible and disposable devices such as wearable electronics and point-of-care medical devices increase, paper-based microfluidic fuel cells (PBFCs) attract more attention. However, the performances of current PBFCs are generally low or the fabrication process is complicated. In this work, we designed a novel single-flow cell architecture with the anode immersed in the liquid fuel and the supporting electrolyte while the cathode exposed to the ambient air. Formate is employed as the fuel and by adopting a fuel-tolerated catalyst for the cathode, only a single joint flow is needed for delivering both the fuel and the supporting electrolyte. The conventional co-flow cell and single-flow cell are also designed and fabricated. The performance of this novel cell is promoted by one order of magnitude compared to the co-flow cell due to the much faster and prompt mass transfer. A maximum power density of ~ 20 mW/cm2 and a maximum current density of 122.8 mA/cm2 are achieved, which are the highest among all reported paper-based direct formate fuel cells. The concentration effects of both the fuel and the supporting electrolyte are also studied and optimized. Furthermore, our PBFCs can be efficiently fabricated by extrude-based 3-D printing, which gives a feasible approach for large-scale production.

Microfluidic fuel cells, 3D printing, single-flow, direct formate fuel cell.

Prof. Dennis Y.C. Leung was born in Hong Kong in 1959.  He received his BEng in 1982 and PhD in fluid dynamics in 1988, both from the Department of Mechanical Engineering at the University of Hong Kong.  He had worked in the Hongkong Electric Co., Ltd. for five years leading the air pollution section of the company. He joined the University of Hong Kong in 1993 as a lecturer in the Department of Mechanical Engineering. He developed the environmental engineering program of the department after joining the university and was very active in conducting research in environmental engineering with main focus in air pollution. Professor Leung is now a full professor of the department specializing in air dispersion modelling, combustion pollution control and renewable energy. He has published more than 400 articles in this research area including 240+ peer reviewed SCI journal papers with high impact factors.  He was invited to write more than 20 review articles for various journals and received high citations.  His h-index is 56 and total citations are more than 12000 according to Scopus. He is one of the top 1% highly cited scientists in the world since 2010 (Essential Science Indicators) and a highly cited researcher in 2017, 2018, and 2019. Prof. Leung has delivered more than 50 keynote and invited speeches in many conferences as well as public lectures.  He serves and has served as an editor or editorial board member of many journals including Applied Energy, Journal of Global Environment, Journal of Power & Energy, Chinese Science Bulletin, Sustainable Energy etc. He also served as an external examiner of the Engineering Program of the Hong Kong Institute of Vocational Education (IVE), and numerous local and overseas thesis examining committees in environmental engineering for the past twenty years.

Prof. Leung is a chartered engineer, a Fellow of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Energy Institute and the Hong Kong Institute of Acoustics. He also serves/served in the board of directors of the Friends of the Earth (HK), Hong Kong Quality Assurance Agency, Asia Pacific Hydrogen Association and Hong Kong Institution of Science.  With his rich experience in air pollution, he had been appointed as chairman of many government and non-government committees including the Energy Institute (HK Branch), ISO 14001 Technical Committee of Hong Kong Quality Assurance Agency, the Task Force on Greenhouse Gas Validation and Verification, just name a few. He is/was an Appeal Board Panel Member of the Gas Safety Ordinance and Noise Control Ordinance of the HKSAR Government, and sat in various committees of the Hong Kong Environmental Protection Department for cleaning up the air in Hong Kong. Prof. Leung received numerous awards including the Outstanding Earth Champion Hong Kong award in 2008 in recognizing his contributions in protecting the environment.

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Article Title:
Microencapsulating n-hexadecane into poly(lactic acid) matrix for fabricating phase change microcapsules based on an electrohydrodynamic atomization technology and characterization of their structures and properties.
Author(s): Zhang Shegnchang, Fabien Salaun and Christine Campagne.

N-alkanes as most common phase change materials (PCMs), due to their high latent heat, good thermal and chemical stabilities, non-toxic and low cost, were regareded as main candidates in energy storage and thermal regulation. Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) as a green, biocompatible and biodegradable polyester, due to its strong physical strength, good barrier effect and satisfactory thermal degradation temperature, were selected as shell matrix for achieving the microencapsulation of phase change materials (PCMs). In this study, a series of n-hexadecane/PLA phase change microcapsules (mPCMs) were fabricated via physical blending method based on a single nozzle electrospraying technology. In order to investigate the effects of PLA concentration and n-hexadecane loading content on the structures and properties of resulted mPCMs, two concentrations of PLA (3 w/v% and 5 w/v%) and three weight ratios between n-hexadecane and PLA (30/70, 50/50 and 70/30 by weight) in chloroform were applied. The mean diameter, size distribution, surface morphology, phase transition behavior and thermal stability of electrosprayed mPCMs were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). These experimental results indicated that spherical mPCMs with mono-dispersed size distribution were obtained regardless of the variations of PLA concentrations as well as n-hexadecane additions. With the increasing of n-hexadecane content, on the one hand, the mean diameter of mPCMs increased gradually, and their size distributions broadened gradually. On the other hand, the actual loading content of n-hexadecane in mPCMs also increased gradually, and corresponding encapsulation efficiency of n-hexadecane decreased gradually. Higher actual loading content and higher encapsulation efficiency of n-hexadecane can be obtained when high PLA concentration was used. Under 5 wt% PLA solution, the actual loading content of n-hexadecane in mPCMs can reach 60 wt%, the encapsulation efficiency also reached 85.3 % and corresponding latent heat of mPCMs also reached 119.0 J/g when the weight ratio between n-hexadecane and PLA in chloroform was 70/30. Furthermore, the effects of entrapping n-hexadecane on the crystallization process of PLA matrix were also discussed. In addition, compared with another biocompatible and biodegradable polyester (poly(caprolactone), PCL), PLA matrix has stronger ability to entrap more n-hexadecane during electro-microencapsulation process. Finally, based on a high latent heat and simple formation process, the electro-spraying route for achieving the microencapsulation of PCMs is a green, non-toxic, and high-efficiency direction for energy storage and heat regulation..

electrospraying; microencapsulation; poly(lactic acid); n-hexadecane; phase change microcapsules; structures and properties.

I am a ph.D student in ENSAIT (Lille, France). Now, my major research field is fabricating and designing multi-functions microcapsules with different structures and properties via electrospraying. Then, the application of electrosprayed microcapsules in functional textiles section is also investigated. In addition, I am also interested in preparation of graphese/polymer composites. I also studied the reinforcement effect of graphene in PVA wet-spun fibers.

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Solar-heated hybrid anaerobic digestion system for cogenerating electricity and heat: A feasibility study for Morocco.
Author(s): Mohammed El Ibrahimi, Ismail Khay, Anas El Maakoul and Mohamed Bakhouya.

Faced with rapidly dwindling fossil fuel resources and escalating climate change threats, most countries are transitioning to more sustainable means of generating energy to satisfy their populations’ ever-increasing needs. Morocco is no exception to this worldwide energetic transition, as more than 34% of its total electric energy is generated through renewables (divided as 16% hydroelectric, 11% wind, and 7% solar). However, despite it having an abundance in organic waste (agricultural, industrial, and municipal), Morocco still does not accord much importance to the anaerobic digestion process as a mean for clean energy production.
In this study, we investigate the feasibility of generating biogas from large-scale anaerobic digesters and using it as a fuel to generate electric power and process steam through two thermal power cycles (gas turbine cogeneration cycle and gas turbine combined cycle) in the Moroccan context. Furthermore, since Morocco has a significant solar potential, the considered digesters are heated by a solar thermal system (thermal collectors and heat storage tanks) which will guarantee a genuine energetic independence.
The heating requirements for the digesters and the preheating needs for the feedstock are calculated for two operating temperatures, namely 35°C (mesophilic) and 55°C (thermophilic). Based on the heating needs of the digesters and the heat exchangers, the solar thermal system is adequately sized. The most viable operating conditions for the system (in regard to temperatures and chosen power cycles) are determined based on techno-economic and environmental life-cycle assessments..

Anaerobic digestion; Methane production; Power cycles; Solar energy system..

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Pending Registration

Article Title:
Charging and discharging characterization of a community electric vehicle batteries.
Author(s): Suganthi D and Dr.Jamuna K.

Nowadays rechargeable batteries are essential for electronic devices, electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. In this paper, the modelling of lithium ion battery is presented and its characteristics of charging/discharging discussed under the various operating conditions. A mathematical model is ready for simulating the electrochemical behavior of lithium-ion batteries (LIB). Battery charging and discharging characteristics of a single battery and the EV’s battery of a community have been discussed. In addition, the battery power also calculated the simulations have been performed in MATLAB and the results are discussed.

Lithium-ion battery, Electric vehicle, charging-discharging
characteristics.

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Article Title:
The nexus between economic growth, environment, tax revenue, capital formation, and trade openness: Evidence from SAARC countries.
Author(s): Qamar Ali, Muhammad Tariq Iqbal Khan, Samina Saghir and Kanwal Zahid.

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Article Title:
A Review on chemical assisted wettability alteration to gas wetness in gas condensate reservoirs.
Author(s): Ehsan Haji Bolouri, Shahin Kord, Abdolnabi Hashemi and Yousef Tamsilian.

In gas condensate reservoirs, pressure drop below the dew point pressure causes condensate accumulation around the well which results in a sharp decrease in gas relative permeability and therefore gas recovery efficiency will be decreased. As a result, an increase in skin factor and well pressure drop could be seen. There are several ways to eliminate the condensate blockage around the wellbore. In recent decades, changing the wetting state of the areas around the well is suggested and thoroughly investigated as a permanent solution to reduce the negative impacts of condensate accumulation.
This study presents a comprehensive review of conducted studies related to changing the wettability of the reservoir rock to gas wetness, investigation of the used chemicals and their effects, successful field experiences, simulation and modeling studies performed so far, and the economic evaluation of the chemical injection operations. Studies have shown that nanoparticles, as a causative agent of wettability alteration alone, are chemically superior to surfactants and polymers. Moreover, Non-ionic surfactants do not change the wettability to gas wetness, and increasing the concentration of anionic surfactants can further change the wettability to gas wetness. Also, in anionic substances an increase in temperature and concentration results in decreasing the hydrophobicity of the carbonate rock surfaces and gas relative permeability. The permeability reduction and hydrophobicity of the carbonated rock surfaces are caused by the deposition of anionic substances in a porous medium which is due to the large size of the molecules. In addition, the injected water components carrying the chemical agents are effective on the productivity of the condensate and the produced gas..

Gas Condensate, Wettability Alteration, Gas Wetness, Economic Analysis.

Yousef TAMSILIAN is an Assistant Professor at the Department of Chemical Eng., Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz, Iran. He completed his Ph.D. and undergraduate studies at Sharif University of Technology in the field of chemical engineering. Over ten years of professional academic and industrial experiences in the universities and oil & gas industries, he has run about 30 projects, published more than 40 papers in international and national journals and conferences and five books subjected to nanomaterials, OpenFOAM CFD, thermodynamics. He also registered two US. Patents and two Iranian Patents having EOR principles to proceed the edge of knowledge for chemicals. Leading a knowledge-based enterprise on high technological materials and given his excited background in the academic and industrial view both in one pot, his current research interests have evolved into two principal themes: 1. Technology Commercialization: Smart chemicals, wettability modifier; 2. Project Development: Wastewater treatment, gas recovery, chemical production.

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Article Title:
ATTITUDE PREDICTORS OF GHANAIAN CONSTRUCTION STAKEHOLDERS TOWARDS THE ADOPTION OF GREEN BUILDING.
Author(s): Florence Dadzoe and Michael Nii Addy.

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Article Title:
EMPIRICAL REVIEW OF SUSTAINABLE CONSTRUCTION PRACTICES IN THE GHANAIAN CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY.
Author(s): Degraft Owusu Manu, Florence Dadzoe and Prince Antwi-Afari.

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Article Title:
Sizing, Modeling, Experimentation and Performance Assessment of a Hybrid system.
Author(s): Sofia Boulmrharj, Mohammed Khaidar, Bakhouya Mohamed and Zine-Dine Khalid.

Renewable Energy Sources (RES) have been widely studied and deployed these last decades in order to minimize the building’s consumption from the electric grid while decreasing the greenhouse gas emissions. However, their intermittent nature and the unpredictable variability represent the main challenges of their efficient and seamless integration into buildings. In fact, storage devices (e.g., batteries, hydrogen, flywheel) have been extensively studied for integration into hybrid systems in order to overcome the RES challenges. On another note, determining the suitable size of the hybrid systems’ components is highly needed for a permanent electricity supply, in particular for rural regions. It is extremely dependent on multiple variables, mainly solar irradiation, ambient temperature and the building’s electric energy consumption. In this work, which is performed within the framework of two projects (MIGRID and PROPRES.MA), a stand-alone PV system, which is composed of PV panels, regulator, batteries, and inverter, has been sized, modeled and experimented according to a real family house’s consumption located in El Jadida, Morocco. Then, its performances have been evaluated. Thus, simulation and experimental results have been reported in order to validate the developed models as well as showing the efficiency of the sizing method. Also, the assessment of its performances prove its effectiveness in ensuring the building’s electricity demand..

Hybrid systems; RES systems; PV panels; batteries; sizing method; modeling..

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Article Title:
Application of Model Predictive Control Based on MLD Model and Subspace Identification Method to Complex System.
Author(s): Chen Yang and Tao Zhang.

It is difficult to establish accurate mathematical models of many systems because of the complex working process, which makes it impossible to design the control system so that it operates at an optimal operating point. In addition, accurate mechanism models cannot generally be used for control. In recent years, the development of artificial intelligence algorithms has driven the development of data-driven models. Data-driven model based on artificial intelligence algorithm can reflect the mapping relationship between input and output of actual objects well, which provides a good solution for designing controllers. However, the algorithm of artificial intelligence is relatively complex, and usually requires a lot of time to train the model. The subspace identification method directly uses the input and output data, and uses the space projection method to estimate the system state space model. Since the subspace identification algorithm is a non-iterative algorithm, its calculation speed is fast, and it avoids the problems of local optimality and inability to converge at the same time.
The subspace identification method obtains the state space model. In order to build the more accurate linear model, the system should be identified under different working conditions to obtain multiple submodels. The sub-models are not used as optimization models because they need to be switched when operating at different operating points. The idea of MLD(mix logic dynamic) system modeling is to express the A/L(analog and logic) and L/A conversion parts using mixed integer inequalities, and combine with the dynamic description of continuous systems to form a mixed logic dynamic system. By introducing mixed integer inequalities, the MLD model integrates multiple linear sub-models to avoid jitter caused by model switching, enhance the robust stability of the system, and each sampling moment can use the dynamic information of all sub-models to perform nonlinear system dynamic optimization control,which improves the control quality of the system.
Based on the above two methods, predictive control of complex systems is simple and effective. In this paper, a unified framework for predictive control of complex systems is established. The framework has wide applicability and solves the problem that it is difficult for complex systems to establish control systems..

Complex System; MLD model; Model Predictive Control; Subspace identification.

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Article Title:
MPPT Algorithm Based on Passivity Approach for Solar Water Pumping Using Three-Phase Induction Motor Drive.
Author(s): Jesús Linares-Flores, Cesar Gabriel Pérez-Ibarra and José Antonio Juárez-Abad.

This article presents a drive for a standalone photovoltaic system used in water pumping applications based on induction motors. The drive consists of a DC/DC interleaved Double Dual Boost converter (IDDBC) powered through a solar panel array. The output voltage of the IDDB converter is connected to a three-phase five-level ying-capacitor inverter (TP-FL-FC-I) together with the three-phase water pump. The MPPT algorithm used in the IDDB converter is based on the Exact Static Error Dynamics Passive Output Feedback Controller technique to secure the nominal values (Maximum Power) of the solar panel array in the IDDB converter input. The voltage supply of the IDDB converter and the unknown load impedance between the IDDB converter and the TP-FL-FC inverter are estimated, employing two algebraic estimators, one to each parameter. These estimations serve to set the equilibrium points of the ESEDPOF controller to regulate the Maximum Power Point Tracking to the IDDB converter input. The PS-PWM three-phase modulator for the TP-FL-FC power inverter is designed and implemented into an FPGA Xilinx Spartan-6 XC6SLX16. The experimental setup and the experimental results are present to validate the solar water pumping drive. Under this scenario, the solar water pumping drive achieves an electric power efficiency of 87% for the filling of the water container with a caudal of approximately 4[l=s].

Interleaved Double Dual Boost Converter, Three Phase Water Pump, PV Solar Panels, MPPT, Three-Phase Five-Level Flying-Capacitor Inverter, FPGA.

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Article Title:
Hybrid Photovoltaic and Wind Power Generation in Saudi Arabia.
Author(s): Omar Al Zaid, Basharat Salim, Jamel Orfi, Salahuddin Khan and Hassan Alshehri.

Solar and wind energy systems are attractive hybrid renewable energy systems suitable for various applications most commonly for power generation. Compared to standalone wind and solar devices, hybrid systems have several advantages including requiring lesser or no storage devices, being more reliable, damping the daily and seasonal variations and ensuring constant energy flows. This work aims to conduct a feasibility study and a performance analysis of a hybrid wind and solar photovoltaic power system in selected regions in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). A detailed review on the potential of photovoltaic (PV), wind energy and hybrid energy systems in KSA to reason out the potential areas of study has identified two sites to be selected to carry out the investigation. A small size power system driven by solar and wind energy has been modeled and simulated for a year period in the selected locations. Various configuration schemes of integrated solar and wind with storage devices for such a small capacity system have been proposed and their respective performances have been evaluated. Techno-economic aspects have been included. The simulation results indicated that the developed model shows a promise future of implementing the renewable energy at east and south regions of the kingdom..

Renewable Energy, Solar, Wind, Hybrid, Power Generation, Small scale.

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Article Title:
Modelling of Energy Centres in the Smart Area.
Author(s): Bohumír Garlík.

The article deals with the current state of energy consumption, the development of distribution networks, and integrated community energy systems. First of all, the article focuses on the issue and optimization of the functioning of EnergyHubs (EH) – energy centres using a mathematical model in GAMS. The acquired knowledge was then applied to a specific area for finding the optimal variant of EH.

Energy consumption, passive distribution networks, active distribution networks, integrated community energy system, EH, energy centre, mathematic model, GAMS (General Algebraic Modelling System)..

Assoc. Prof. Dr. Bohumir Garlík works as an academic worker at the Czech Technical University in Prague, Czech Republic. He is also involved in scientific work at the Czech Institute of Informatics, Robotics and Cybernetics (CIIRC), for example in the project: City simulation software (CSS) for modelling, planning and strategic assessment of territorial city units. The main orientation of his scientific work is focused on the energy of buildings, Smart Cities, smart buildings and artificial intelligence. He has published 5 monographs and countless scientific impact articles and peer-reviewed articles. He also works as an executive – manager of a company dealing with energy, modern technologies, Smart Cities and artificial intelligence. He is the main designer of several major construction projects..

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Article Title:
Continuous quality control at Hydrogen fuel stations using GC-IMS.
Author(s): Chandrasekhara Dr.Hariharan, Sascha Liedtke, Momoko Kristuf, Marcel Corneille, Werner Schueler and Wolfgang Dr. Vautz.